Abstract

We demonstrate near shot-noise limited hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy using oscillator-only excitation conditions. Using a fast CMOS camera synchronized to an acousto-optic modulator and subtracting subsequent frames acquired at up to 1 MHz frame rates, we demonstrate demodulation and recovery of the SRS spectrum. Surprisingly, we observe that the signal-to-noise of SRS spectra is invariant at modulation frequencies down to 2.5 kHz. Our approach allows for a direct comparison of SRS with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy under identical experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that hyperspectral SRS imaging with shot-noise limited performance at biologically compatible excitation energies is feasible after minor modifications to fast frame-rate CMOS array technology.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (5)

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express17(5), 3651–3658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett.32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Becker, T. W.

Ben-Amotz, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, L. E.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bito, K.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. J.

Cheng, J.-X.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicerone, M. T.

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couderc, V.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dake, F.

Day, J. P.

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhollande, C.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Domke, K. F.

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekvall, K.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling,” Opt. Lett.32(18), 2641–2643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Gilch, P.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halbhuber, K. J.

Hamaguchi, H. O.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, H.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

Ji, M.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajiyama, S.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, K.

Kovalev, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kukura, P.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laimgruber, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leproux, P.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, F.-K.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masukawa, Y.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathies, R. A.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, T. E.

McCamant, D. W.

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mialocq, J. C.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Migler, K. B.

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, D.

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naito, S.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nandakumar, P.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naskrecki, R.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otsuka, Y.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

Pernik, D. R.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ploetz, E.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pommeret, S.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rago, G.

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riemann, I.

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Satoh, S.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Slipchenko, M. N.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumimura, K.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tokuhara, S.

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umemura, W.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

van der Meulen, P.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vartiainen, E. M.

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

Weiner, A. M.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

Yoon, S.

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtserver, G.

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

Y. J. Lee, D. Moon, K. B. Migler, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative Image Analysis of Broadband CARS Hyperspectral Images of Polymer Blends,” Anal. Chem.83(7), 2733–2739 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (2)

P. Kukura, D. W. McCamant, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 461–488 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J Phys Chem Lett (1)

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Bito, M. Okuno, H. Kano, S. Tokuhara, S. Naito, Y. Masukawa, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Protein secondary structure imaging with ultrabroadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microspectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B116(4), 1452–1457 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Phys. (1)

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys.110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics6(12), 845–850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. W. McCamant, P. Kukura, S. Yoon, and R. A. Mathies, “Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy: Apparatus and methods,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4971–4980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the CARS/SRS apparatus. The green elements are those required for SRS, namely the SA5 camera, acousto-optic modulator (AOM), and pump filter. All other elements are the same as for CARS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SRS spectra of neat BN recorded with a CMOS array at 500 kHz modulation and 369 ns exposure time. (a) Raw spectrum (red) with fitting mask (green) and 2nd order polynomial fit (black). (b) Corrected signal (red) with overlaid Lorentzian fit (black).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(left) SRS signal, noise, and SNR remain constant as a function of modulation frequency (369 ns exposure, 105 frames). (right) SRS signal shows a linear dependence on exposure time; SRS noise and SNR show a square root dependence (black lines) (50 kHz modulation, 105 frames). Note the Stokes power was reduced for exposure time measurements. Error bars are the standard deviation of five measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SRS (a) and CARS (c) spectra of neat BN with spontaneous Raman spectrum overlaid in black. (b) Stokes laser intensity measured with 369 ns exposure. The CARS and SRS spectra were taken back-to-back with identical integration times and excitation conditions to allow for direct comparison of the SNR. The laser powers were 45 and 5 mW for the pump and Stokes beams, respectively, at the sample plane. The modulation rate was 150 kHz with a 369 ns exposure time for the SRS measurement. The total exposure time for the CARS and SRS (54200 frames) measurement was equivalent to 20 ms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CARS (green), SRS (black), and Raman (red) spectra of BN centered at 1185 cm−1. Hyperspectral CARS and SRS both easily resolve both peaks in this congested spectrum; however, the CARS spectrum is clearly distorted compared to the Raman spectrum, while the SRS and Raman spectra overlay perfectly.

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