Abstract

Range-gated technology is well known for its good reliability, large field of view (FOV) and low cost in target detection through scattering or turbid medium. However, the tail-gating technology suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio in high turbidity levels due to superposition of photons multiply scattered from the medium and that reflected from the target. In this paper, polarization properties of multiply scattered photons emerging from the turbid medium are studied. Results demonstrate that diffusive photons are almost completely depolarized with no diattenuation and retardance. We combined the tail-gated technology with polarization detection method to effectively image in high level of turbidity. This approach showed about two times enhancement in image contrast as compared with the conventional range-gated technology.

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2012 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

D. Yong, L. Qiang, and L. Qingming, “Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Refractive Index Using Azimuth-Resolved Based Diffuse Backscattering Light,” Acta Opt. Sin.26(8), 1214–1219 (2006).

M. K. Swami, S. Manhas, P. Buddhiwant, N. Ghosh, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Polar decomposition of 3×3 Mueller matrix: a tool for quantitative tissue polarimetry,” Opt. Express14(20), 9324–9337 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, “Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by use of circularly and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1168–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. DeBoo, J. M. Sasian, and R. A. Chipman, “Depolarization of diffusely reflecting man-made objects,” Appl. Opt.44(26), 5434–5445 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, “Circular polarization memory of light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(6), 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tan, A. Sluzek, and G. Seet, “Model of gated imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Eng.44(11), 116002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, “Polarization imaging through scattering medium,” Proc. SPIE4133, 124–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, and P. J. Roberts, “Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by polarization discrimination,” Appl. Opt.38(18), 3937–3944 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Swartz, “Laser range gated underwater imaging advances,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.19, 722–727 (1994).

Ablitt, B.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, “Circular polarization memory of light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(6), 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, “Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by use of circularly and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1168–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni and R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved backscattering of circularly and linearly polarized light in a turbid medium,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2773–2775 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alouini, M.

Alrubaiee, M.

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

Baarstad, I.

Bacskai, B. J.

Bai, T.

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bénière, A.

Berginc, G.

Boas, D. A.

Bourderionnet, J.

Buddhiwant, P.

Chang, P. C. Y.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, “Polarization imaging through scattering medium,” Proc. SPIE4133, 124–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

De Martino, A.

DeBoo, B. J.

Dereniak, E. L.

Ding, K.

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Engheta, N.

Fam, C. Y.

Gayen, L. S. K.

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

Ghosh, N.

Goudail, F.

Grisard, A.

Gupta, P. K.

Hopcraft, K. I.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jin, W.

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, D. L.

Kartazayeva, S. A.

Kaspersen, P.

Kumar, A. T. N.

Lewis, G. D.

Li, H.

L. Xu, H. Li, and Y. Zheng, “Influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7(1), 64–66 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Løke, T.

Lu, S. Y.

Manhas, S.

Miller, D. A.

Ni, X.

Normandin, X.

Novikova, T.

Patel, H.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pezzaniti, J. L.

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, “Polarization imaging through scattering medium,” Proc. SPIE4133, 124–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, E. N.

Qiang, L.

D. Yong, L. Qiang, and L. Qingming, “Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Refractive Index Using Azimuth-Resolved Based Diffuse Backscattering Light,” Acta Opt. Sin.26(8), 1214–1219 (2006).

Qingming, L.

D. Yong, L. Qiang, and L. Qingming, “Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Refractive Index Using Azimuth-Resolved Based Diffuse Backscattering Light,” Acta Opt. Sin.26(8), 1214–1219 (2006).

Raymond, S. B.

Roberts, P. J.

Rowe, M. P.

Sasian, J. M.

Seet, G.

Sluzek, A.

Swami, M. K.

Swartz, A.

A. Swartz, “Laser range gated underwater imaging advances,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.19, 722–727 (1994).

Tan, C.

Tyo, J. S.

Uppal, A.

Walker, J. G.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

C. Tan, G. Seet, A. Sluzek, X. Wang, C. T. Yuen, C. Y. Fam, and H. Y. Wong, “Scattering noise estimation of range-gated imaging system in turbid condition,” Opt. Express18(20), 21147–21154 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, H. Y.

Xu, L.

Xu, M.

M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, “Circular polarization memory of light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(6), 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yong, D.

D. Yong, L. Qiang, and L. Qingming, “Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Refractive Index Using Azimuth-Resolved Based Diffuse Backscattering Light,” Acta Opt. Sin.26(8), 1214–1219 (2006).

Yuen, C. T.

Zevallos, M. E.

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

Zheng, Y.

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

D. Yong, L. Qiang, and L. Qingming, “Measurement of Particle Size Distribution and Refractive Index Using Azimuth-Resolved Based Diffuse Backscattering Light,” Acta Opt. Sin.26(8), 1214–1219 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Zevallos, L. S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(01115), 1–3 (2005).

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

A. Swartz, “Laser range gated underwater imaging advances,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.19, 722–727 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, K. I. Hopcraft, B. Ablitt, and E. Jakeman, “Polarization discrimination for active imaging in scattering media,” Opt. Commun.159(1–3), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Tan, A. Sluzek, and G. Seet, “Model of gated imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Eng.44(11), 116002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Xu and R. R. Alfano, “Circular polarization memory of light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.72(6), 065601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Li, X. Wang, T. Bai, W. Jin, Y. Huang, and K. Ding, “Speckle noise suppression of range-gated underwater imaging system,” Proc. SPIE7443, 74432A, 74432A-8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chenault and J. L. Pezzaniti, “Polarization imaging through scattering medium,” Proc. SPIE4133, 124–133 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Optical properties of “IntralipidTM”, an aqueous suspension of lipid droplets” (Steven Jacques, Oregon Medical Laser Center, 1998). http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/intralipid/index.html .

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