Abstract

The stimulated Raman scattering signal is often accompanied by unwanted background arising from other pump-probe modalities. We demonstrate an approach to overcome this challenge based on spectral domain modulation, enabled by a compact, cost-effective angle-to-wavelength pulse shaper. The pulse shaper switches between two spectrally narrow windows, which are cut out of a broadband femtosecond pulse and selected for on- and off- Raman resonance excitation, at 2.1 MHz frequency for detection of stimulated Raman scattering signal. Such spectral modulation reduced the unwanted pump-probe signals by up to 20 times and enabled stimulated Raman scattering imaging of molecules in a pigmented environment.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 431–433 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review,” Opt. Commun.284(15), 3669–3692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. D. Slepkov, A. Ridsdale, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Single laser source for multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Appl. Opt.49(25), F10–F17 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Katz, J. M. Levitt, E. Grinvald, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-beam coherent Raman spectroscopy and microscopy via spectral notch shaping,” Opt. Express18(22), 22693–22701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

2008 (3)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Piletic, M. C. Fischer, P. Samineni, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid pulse shaping with homodyne detection for measuring nonlinear optical signals,” Opt. Lett.33(13), 1482–1484 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, “Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(11), 5196–5204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 25–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(4), 494–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett.5(1), 15–17 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Frequency-modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.36(4), 245–247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, C.

Ben-Amotz, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berciaud, S.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, L. E.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Frequency-modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.36(4), 245–247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blab, G. A.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borri, P.

Carvajal, M. T.

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caster, A. G.

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, “Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(11), 5196–5204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B. J.

Chen, B.-C.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H.

Chung, C.-Y.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contreras-Rojas, L. R.

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dake, F.

Dantus, M.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhollande, C.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ding, S.-Y.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekvall, K.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ely, D. R.

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enejder, A. M. K.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 25–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Fischer, M. C.

Freudiger, C. W.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express17(15), 12532–12539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

Fukui, K.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gilch, P.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grinvald, E.

Guy, R. H.

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellerer, T.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 25–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Herek, J. L.

Hibara, A.

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiki, S.

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, W.

Himmel, M. E.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express17(15), 12532–12539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horne, D. E.

Itoh, K.

Jung, Y.

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajiyama, S. i.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

Kimura, H.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitamori, T.

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Korterik, J. P.

Kovalev, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laimgruber, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

Leaird, D. E.

D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(4), 494–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

Leone, S. R.

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, “Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(11), 5196–5204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, M. D.

Levi, M.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Frequency-modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.36(4), 245–247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Levitt, J. M.

Lilledahl, M. B.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, R. S.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S.-H.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Chen and S.-H. Lim, “Optimal laser pulse shaping for interferometric multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B112(12), 3653–3661 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, “Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(11), 5196–5204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-S.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, “Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(25), 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, T. E.

Mawatari, K.

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

Nandakumar, P.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naskrecki, R.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, O.

S.-H. Lim, A. G. Caster, O. Nicolet, and S. R. Leone, “Chemical imaging by single pulse interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(11), 5196–5204 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

Offerhaus, H. L.

Oglesbee, R. A.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Pegoraro, A. F.

Pezacki, J. P.

Piletic, I. R.

Ploetz, E.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pommeret, S.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Postma, S.

Potma, E. O.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridsdale, A.

Rocha-Mendoza, I.

Ruvkun, G.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express17(15), 12532–12539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samineni, P.

Sawada, T.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, J. M. Levitt, E. Grinvald, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-beam coherent Raman spectroscopy and microscopy via spectral notch shaping,” Opt. Express18(22), 22693–22701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slepkov, A. D.

Slipchenko, M. N.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolow, A.

Suhalim, J. L.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumimura, K.

Sung, J.

B.-C. Chen, J. Sung, and S.-H. Lim, “Chemical imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy at the vibrational fingerprint region,” J. Phys. Chem. B114(50), 16871–16880 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokeshi, M.

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchiyama, K.

K. Uchiyama, A. Hibara, H. Kimura, T. Sawada, and T. Kitamori, “Thermal lens microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(9A), 5316–5322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Umemura, W.

van der Meulen, P.

K. Ekvall, P. van der Meulen, C. Dhollande, L. E. Berg, S. Pommeret, R. Naskrecki, and J. C. Mialocq, “Cross phase modulation artifact in liquid phase transient absorption spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys.87(5), 2340–2352 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Rhijn, A. C. W.

Volkmer, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” New J. Phys.11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. C.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

Watson, P.

Weiner, A. M.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review,” Opt. Commun.284(15), 3669–3692 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(4), 494–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(5), 1929–1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express17(15), 12532–12539 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett.31(12), 1872–1874 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, T.

Yoo, Y. S.

Yurtserver, G.

Yurtsever, G.

Zeng, Y.

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 25–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

S. Hiki, K. Mawatari, A. Hibara, M. Tokeshi, and T. Kitamori, “UV excitation thermal lens microscope for sensitive and nonlabeled detection of nonfluorescent molecules,” Anal. Chem.78(8), 2859–2863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative vibrational imaging by hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and multivariate curve resolution analysis,” Anal. Chem.85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

M. N. Slipchenko, H. Chen, D. R. Ely, Y. Jung, M. T. Carvajal, and J.-X. Cheng, “Vibrational imaging of tablets by epi-detected stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Analyst (Lond.)135(10), 2613–2619 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

B. G. Saar, Y. Zeng, C. W. Freudiger, Y.-S. Liu, M. E. Himmel, X. S. Xie, and S.-Y. Ding, “Label-free, real-time monitoring of biomass processing with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.49(32), 5476–5479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Bethea, “Frequency-modulated shot noise limited stimulated Raman gain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.36(4), 245–247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(1), 25–27 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of cholesterol crystals in atherosclerotic plaques using stimulated Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation microscopy,” Biophys. J.102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. E. Leaird and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond direct space-to-time pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(4), 494–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J Biophotonics (1)

M. N. Slipchenko, R. A. Oglesbee, D. Zhang, W. Wu, and J.-X. Cheng, “Heterodyne detected nonlinear optical imaging in a lock-in free manner,” J Biophotonics5(10), 801–807 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Phys Chem Lett (1)

D. Zhang, M. N. Slipchenko, and J.-X. Cheng, “Highly sensitive vibrational imaging by femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss,” J Phys Chem Lett2(11), 1248–1253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Mol. Pharm. (1)

B. G. Saar, L. R. Contreras-Rojas, X. S. Xie, and R. H. Guy, “Imaging drug delivery to skin with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Mol. Pharm.8(3), 969–975 (2011).
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Nat. Methods (1)

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods8(2), 135–138 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics5(2), 103–109 (2011).
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Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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