Abstract

Fabrication of a nanopore in a hollow microcapsule was demonstrated using near-infrared femtosecond laser irradiation. The shape of the irradiated microcapsules was kept spherical except for a pore in the shell owing to the nonthermal processing by a femtosecond laser. The simulation results for the near-field and far-field scattering around a microcapsule revealed that highly-enhanced optical intensity can be generated at a spot on the shell of a microcapsule, which would in turn contribute to localized ablation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the nanoperforation of transparent hollow microcapsules by a near-infrared laser without any doping with absorbing metals or dyes that may cause cell toxicity. The presented method is a promising approach for safer drug delivery and the controlled release of therapeutic drugs.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. E. Amstad and E. Reimhult, “Nanoparticle actuated hollow drug delivery vehicles,” Nanomedicine (Lond)7(1), 145–164 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. J. Chung and M. F. Rubner, “Methods of loading and releasing low molecular weight cationic molecules in weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films,” Langmuir18(4), 1176–1183 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Terakawa and Y. Tanaka, “Dielectric microsphere mediated transfection using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2877–2879 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

E. Amstad and E. Reimhult, “Nanoparticle actuated hollow drug delivery vehicles,” Nanomedicine (Lond)7(1), 145–164 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Terakawa and Y. Tanaka, “Dielectric microsphere mediated transfection using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2877–2879 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Angelatos, B. Radt, and F. Caruso, “Light-responsive polyelectrolyte/gold nanoparticle microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(7), 3071–3076 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. J. Chung and M. F. Rubner, “Methods of loading and releasing low molecular weight cationic molecules in weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films,” Langmuir18(4), 1176–1183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amstad, E.

E. Amstad and E. Reimhult, “Nanoparticle actuated hollow drug delivery vehicles,” Nanomedicine (Lond)7(1), 145–164 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelatos, A. S.

A. S. Angelatos, B. Radt, and F. Caruso, “Light-responsive polyelectrolyte/gold nanoparticle microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(7), 3071–3076 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bédard, M. F.

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brandau, W.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caruso, F.

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Angelatos, B. Radt, and F. Caruso, “Light-responsive polyelectrolyte/gold nanoparticle microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(7), 3071–3076 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, A. J.

A. J. Chung and M. F. Rubner, “Methods of loading and releasing low molecular weight cationic molecules in weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films,” Langmuir18(4), 1176–1183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

d’Angelo, I.

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Geest, B. G.

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

Delcea, M.

M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischler, M.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gearhart, J. M.

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geiss, K. T.

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorin, D. A.

D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, M.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hess, K. L.

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosta-Rigau, L.

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hussain, S. M.

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahnen-Dechent, W.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, K.

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreft, O.

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Rotonda, M. I.

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leifert, A.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomas, H.

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miro, A.

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsuhashi, T.

M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyanishi, T.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Möhwald, H.

M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz Javier, A.

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuss, S.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Obara, G.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parak, W. J.

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piera Alberola, A.

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaglia, F.

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radt, B.

A. S. Angelatos, B. Radt, and F. Caruso, “Light-responsive polyelectrolyte/gold nanoparticle microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(7), 3071–3076 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reimhult, E.

E. Amstad and E. Reimhult, “Nanoparticle actuated hollow drug delivery vehicles,” Nanomedicine (Lond)7(1), 145–164 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubner, M. F.

A. J. Chung and M. F. Rubner, “Methods of loading and releasing low molecular weight cationic molecules in weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films,” Langmuir18(4), 1176–1183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schlager, J. J.

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, G.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekita, H.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shchukin, D. G.

D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, U.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skirtach, A. G.

M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, G. B.

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumiyoshi, T.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa and Y. Tanaka, “Dielectric microsphere mediated transfection using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2877–2879 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terakawa, M.

M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Terakawa and Y. Tanaka, “Dielectric microsphere mediated transfection using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2877–2879 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsunoi, Y.

M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ungaro, F.

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viktorovitch, P.

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, F.

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

M. F. Bédard, B. G. De Geest, A. G. Skirtach, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Polymeric microcapsules with light responsive properties for encapsulation and release,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.158, 2–14 (2010).
[PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

M. Delcea, H. Möhwald, and A. G. Skirtach, “Stimuli-responsive LbL capsules and nanoshells for drug delivery,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.63(9), 730–747 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

A. G. Skirtach, A. Muñoz Javier, O. Kreft, K. Köhler, A. Piera Alberola, H. Möhwald, W. J. Parak, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Laser-induced release of encapsulated materials inside living cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.45(28), 4612–4617 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B81(8), 1015–1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanomedicine (1)

M. Terakawa, Y. Tsunoi, and T. Mitsuhashi, “In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse,” Int. J. Nanomedicine7, 2653–2660 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1)

F. Ungaro, I. d’Angelo, A. Miro, M. I. La Rotonda, and F. Quaglia, “Engineered PLGA nano- and micro-carriers for pulmonary delivery: challenges and promises,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol.64(9), 1217–1235 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

A. S. Angelatos, B. Radt, and F. Caruso, “Light-responsive polyelectrolyte/gold nanoparticle microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(7), 3071–3076 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Köhler, D. G. Shchukin, H. Möhwald, and G. B. Sukhorukov, “Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(39), 18250–18259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (2)

D. G. Shchukin, D. A. Gorin, and H. Möhwald, “Ultrasonically induced opening of polyelectrolyte microcontainers,” Langmuir22(17), 7400–7404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chung and M. F. Rubner, “Methods of loading and releasing low molecular weight cationic molecules in weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films,” Langmuir18(4), 1176–1183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanomedicine (Lond) (1)

E. Amstad and E. Reimhult, “Nanoparticle actuated hollow drug delivery vehicles,” Nanomedicine (Lond)7(1), 145–164 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Wang, L. Hosta-Rigau, H. Lomas, and F. Caruso, “Nanostructured polymer assemblies formed at interfaces: applications from immobilization and encapsulation to stimuli-responsive release,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4782–4801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Terakawa, S. Takeda, Y. Tanaka, G. Obara, T. Miyanishi, T. Sakai, T. Sumiyoshi, H. Sekita, M. Hasegawa, P. Viktorovitch, and M. Obara, “Enhanced localized near field and scattered far field for surface nanophotonics applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(1), 194–271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

Y. Pan, S. Neuss, A. Leifert, M. Fischler, F. Wen, U. Simon, G. Schmid, W. Brandau, and W. Jahnen-Dechent, “Size-dependent cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles,” Small3(11), 1941–1949 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toxicol. In Vitro (1)

S. M. Hussain, K. L. Hess, J. M. Gearhart, K. T. Geiss, and J. J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells,” Toxicol. In Vitro19(7), 975–983 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proof-of-concept experiments. The laser spot was 300 μm, enabling the simultaneous irradiation of multiple microcapsules.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical intensity distributions on the x-z plane simulated by the 3D FDTD method for polymer microcapsules with different external diameters: (A) 500 nm, (B) 750 nm, (C) 1000 nm, (D) 1250 nm, (E) 1500 nm, and (F) 1750 nm. A plane wave was incident on the microcapsule with the wave vector in the -z direction. The shell thickness was set to 200 nm for all external diameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the peak optical intensity at the external surface of a microcapsule on the external diameter of the microcapsule calculated by the 3D FDTD method. The vertical axis indicates optical intensity enhancement in relation to the incident optical intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the maximum optical intensity (blue line) and its z- position (red line) on the external diameter of a microcapsule. The increase in the z- position shows shifts from the Mie scattering near-field domain to far-field focusing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of microcapsules: (A) before fs laser irradiation and (B) after fs laser irradiation at 6.6 × 1012 W/cm2. (C) Enlarged image of dashed square in (B). A nanopore [pointed out with white arrows in (B)] was fabricated in the shell of the microcapsules after fs laser irradiation. Substantial disruption of a shell was also observed indicated as X in (B). Scale bars indicate 1000 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical intensity profiles along (A) the z- axis, (B) the x-axis and (C) the y-axis. (B) and (C) Optical intensity profiles on the external surface of a microcapsule (z = 0 nm) and that on the peak intensity (z = −375 nm). The FWHM on the y-axis at z = 0 nm was 230 nm, indicating that the interaction spot was localized to a submicron scale on a shell.

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