Abstract

Optical traps are used to measure force (F) over a wide range (0.01 to 1,000 pN). Variations in bead radius (r) hinder force precision since trap stiffness (ktrap) varies as r3 when r is small. Prior work has shown ktrap is maximized when r is approximately equal to the beam waist (w0), which on our instrument was ~400 nm when trapping with a 1064-nm laser. In this work, we show that by choosing r ≈w0, we improved the force precision by 2.8-fold as compared to a smaller bead (250 nm). This improvement in force precision was verified by pulling on a canonical DNA hairpin. Thus, by using an optimum bead size, one can simultaneously maximize ktrap while minimizing errors in F.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Le Gall, K. Perronet, D. Dulin, A. Villing, P. Bouyer, K. Visscher, and N. Westbrook, “Simultaneous calibration of optical tweezers spring constant and position detector response,” Opt. Express18(25), 26469–26474 (2010).
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  41. J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Farré, F. Marsà, and M. Montes-Usategui, “Optimized back-focal-plane interferometry directly measures forces of optically trapped particles,” Opt. Express20(11), 12270–12291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. H. Paik and T. T. Perkins, “Overstretching DNA at 65 pN Does Not Require Peeling from Free Ends or Nicks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(10), 3219–3221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, “Precision Surface-Coupled Optical-Trapping Assay with One-Basepair Resolution,” Biophys. J.96(7), 2926–2934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(1-2), 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Aitken, R. A. Marshall, and J. D. Puglisi, “An oxygen scavenging system for improvement of dye stability in single-molecule fluorescence experiments,” Biophys. J.94(5), 1826–1835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Bormuth, A. Jannasch, M. Ander, C. M. van Kats, A. van Blaaderen, J. Howard, and E. Schäffer, “Optical trapping of coated microspheres,” Opt. Express16(18), 13831–13844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. R. Carter, G. M. King, T. A. Ulrich, W. Halsey, D. Alchenberger, and T. T. Perkins, “Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt.46(3), 421–427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.36(1), 171–190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Rohrbach, “Stiffness of optical traps: quantitative agreement between experiment and electromagnetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(16), 168102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nugent-Glandorf and T. T. Perkins, “Measuring 0.1-nm motion in 1 ms in an optical microscope with differential back-focal-plane detection,” Opt. Lett.29(22), 2611–2613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, “Optical-trap force transducer that operates by direct measurement of light momentum,” Methods Enzymol.361, 134–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Schnitzer, K. Visscher, and S. M. Block, “Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp,” Nature400(6740), 184–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1066–1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. P. Ghislain, N. A. Switz, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Small Forces Using an Optical Trap,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.65(9), 2762–2768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological Applications of Optical Forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.23(1), 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

G. I. Bell, “Models for the Specific Adhesion of Cells to Cells,” Science200(4342), 618–627 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitken, C. E.

C. E. Aitken, R. A. Marshall, and J. D. Puglisi, “An oxygen scavenging system for improvement of dye stability in single-molecule fluorescence experiments,” Biophys. J.94(5), 1826–1835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alchenberger, D.

Ander, M.

Anthony, P. C.

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behnke-Parks, W. M.

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, G. I.

G. I. Bell, “Models for the Specific Adhesion of Cells to Cells,” Science200(4342), 618–627 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betterton, M. D.

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.36(1), 171–190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Schnitzer, K. Visscher, and S. M. Block, “Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp,” Nature400(6740), 184–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1066–1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological Applications of Optical Forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.23(1), 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bormuth, V.

Bouyer, P.

Brigley, A. M.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buosciolo, A.

A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, “Optical-trap force transducer that operates by direct measurement of light momentum,” Methods Enzymol.361, 134–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, A. R.

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, “Precision Surface-Coupled Optical-Trapping Assay with One-Basepair Resolution,” Biophys. J.96(7), 2926–2934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Carter, G. M. King, T. A. Ulrich, W. Halsey, D. Alchenberger, and T. T. Perkins, “Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt.46(3), 421–427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cecconi, C.

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, Y. R.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, “Optical-trap force transducer that operates by direct measurement of light momentum,” Methods Enzymol.361, 134–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalal, R. V.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulin, D.

Dumont, S.

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farré, A.

Finer, J. T.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florin, E.-L.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flyvbjerg, H.

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, D. N.

J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gebhardt, J. C.

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghislain, L. P.

L. P. Ghislain, N. A. Switz, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Small Forces Using an Optical Trap,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.65(9), 2762–2768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gieseke, A.

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittes, F.

Greenleaf, W. J.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.36(1), 171–190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, S. P.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1066–1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A. N.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halsey, W.

Herschlag, D.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hörber, J. K. H.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, J.

V. Bormuth, A. Jannasch, M. Ander, C. M. van Kats, A. van Blaaderen, J. Howard, and E. Schäffer, “Optical trapping of coated microspheres,” Opt. Express16(18), 13831–13844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jannasch, A.

Jülicher, F.

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, G. M.

Landick, R.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landry, M. P.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larizadeh, K.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gall, A.

Li, J.

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liphardt, J.

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marqusee, S.

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsà, F.

Marshall, R. A.

C. E. Aitken, R. A. Marshall, and J. D. Puglisi, “An oxygen scavenging system for improvement of dye stability in single-molecule fluorescence experiments,” Biophys. J.94(5), 1826–1835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCall, P. M.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsis, P. G.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffitt, J. R.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montes-Usategui, M.

Nelson, P. C.

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neupane, K.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

Onoa, B.

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paik, D. H.

D. H. Paik and T. T. Perkins, “Overstretching DNA at 65 pN Does Not Require Peeling from Free Ends or Nicks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(10), 3219–3221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavone, F. S.

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, T. T.

D. H. Paik and T. T. Perkins, “Overstretching DNA at 65 pN Does Not Require Peeling from Free Ends or Nicks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(10), 3219–3221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(1-2), 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, “Precision Surface-Coupled Optical-Trapping Assay with One-Basepair Resolution,” Biophys. J.96(7), 2926–2934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Carter, G. M. King, T. A. Ulrich, W. Halsey, D. Alchenberger, and T. T. Perkins, “Stabilization of an optical microscope to 0.1 nm in three dimensions,” Appl. Opt.46(3), 421–427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nugent-Glandorf and T. T. Perkins, “Measuring 0.1-nm motion in 1 ms in an optical microscope with differential back-focal-plane detection,” Opt. Lett.29(22), 2611–2613 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perronet, K.

Pesce, G.

A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peterman, E. J. G.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pralle, A.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prummer, M.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puglisi, J. D.

C. E. Aitken, R. A. Marshall, and J. D. Puglisi, “An oxygen scavenging system for improvement of dye stability in single-molecule fluorescence experiments,” Biophys. J.94(5), 1826–1835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Z.

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rickgauer, J. P.

J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rief, M.

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohrbach, A.

A. Rohrbach, “Stiffness of optical traps: quantitative agreement between experiment and electromagnetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(16), 168102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasso, A.

A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schäffer, E.

V. Bormuth, A. Jannasch, M. Ander, C. M. van Kats, A. van Blaaderen, J. Howard, and E. Schäffer, “Optical trapping of coated microspheres,” Opt. Express16(18), 13831–13844 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, “Interference model for back-focal-plane displacement detection in optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett.23(1), 7–9 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

M. J. Schnitzer, K. Visscher, and S. M. Block, “Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp,” Nature400(6740), 184–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seol, Y.

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, “Precision Surface-Coupled Optical-Trapping Assay with One-Basepair Resolution,” Biophys. J.96(7), 2926–2934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, E. A.

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. E.

J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, “Optical-trap force transducer that operates by direct measurement of light momentum,” Methods Enzymol.361, 134–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solanki, A.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosova, I.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spudich, J. A.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stienen, G. J. M.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stigler, J.

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological Applications of Optical Forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.23(1), 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switz, N. A.

L. P. Ghislain, N. A. Switz, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Small Forces Using an Optical Trap,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.65(9), 2762–2768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tinoco, I.

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tinoco, I. J.

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolic-No?rrelykke, S. F.

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Travers, K.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulrich, T. A.

van Blaaderen, A.

van Kats, C. M.

van Mameren, J.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, K. C.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villing, A.

Visscher, K.

A. Le Gall, K. Perronet, D. Dulin, A. Villing, P. Bouyer, K. Visscher, and N. Westbrook, “Simultaneous calibration of optical tweezers spring constant and position detector response,” Opt. Express18(25), 26469–26474 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Schnitzer, K. Visscher, and S. M. Block, “Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp,” Nature400(6740), 184–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1066–1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. D.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

L. P. Ghislain, N. A. Switz, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Small Forces Using an Optical Trap,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.65(9), 2762–2768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, N.

Woodside, M. T.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.36(1), 171–190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuite, G. J. L.

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H.

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, F.

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biochem.

J. R. Moffitt, Y. R. Chemla, S. B. Smith, and C. Bustamante, “Recent Advances in Optical Tweezers,” Annu. Rev. Biochem.77(1), 205–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.

W. J. Greenleaf, M. T. Woodside, and S. M. Block, “High-resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.36(1), 171–190 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological Applications of Optical Forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.23(1), 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biophys. J.

R. M. Simmons, J. T. Finer, S. Chu, and J. A. Spudich, “Quantitative Measurements of Force and Displacement Using an Optical Trap,” Biophys. J.70(4), 1813–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Rickgauer, D. N. Fuller, and D. E. Smith, “DNA as a metrology standard for length and force measurements with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.91(11), 4253–4257 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Carter, Y. Seol, and T. T. Perkins, “Precision Surface-Coupled Optical-Trapping Assay with One-Basepair Resolution,” Biophys. J.96(7), 2926–2934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Aitken, R. A. Marshall, and J. D. Puglisi, “An oxygen scavenging system for improvement of dye stability in single-molecule fluorescence experiments,” Biophys. J.94(5), 1826–1835 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Landry, P. M. McCall, Z. Qi, and Y. R. Chemla, “Characterization of photoactivated singlet oxygen damage in single-molecule optical trap experiments,” Biophys. J.97(8), 2128–2136 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Wang, H. Yin, R. Landick, J. Gelles, and S. M. Block, “Stretching DNA with optical tweezers,” Biophys. J.72(3), 1335–1346 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Seol, J. Li, P. C. Nelson, T. T. Perkins, and M. D. Betterton, “Elasticity of Short DNA Molecules: Theory and Experiment for Contour Lengths of 0.6-7 microm,” Biophys. J.93(12), 4360–4373 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, “Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-resolution position sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(4), 1066–1076 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. H. Paik and T. T. Perkins, “Overstretching DNA at 65 pN Does Not Require Peeling from Free Ends or Nicks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(10), 3219–3221 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev.

T. T. Perkins, “Optical traps for single molecule biophysics: a primer,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(1-2), 203–220 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol.

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, “Optical-trap force transducer that operates by direct measurement of light momentum,” Methods Enzymol.361, 134–162 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E.-L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Hörber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Tech.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, “Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry,” Nature365(6448), 721–727 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Schnitzer, K. Visscher, and S. M. Block, “Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp,” Nature400(6740), 184–189 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. Buosciolo, G. Pesce, and A. Sasso, “New calibration method for position detector for simultaneous measurements of force constants and local viscosity in optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun.230(4-6), 357–368 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Rohrbach, “Stiffness of optical traps: quantitative agreement between experiment and electromagnetic theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(16), 168102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

M. T. Woodside, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, K. Travers, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6190–6195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, X. Liu, K. Neupane, A. N. Gupta, A. M. Brigley, A. Solanki, I. Sosova, and M. T. Woodside, “Direct observation of multiple misfolding pathways in a single prion protein molecule,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(14), 5283–5288 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(9), 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Tolić-No̸rrelykke, E. Schäffer, J. Howard, F. S. Pavone, F. Jülicher, and H. Flyvbjerg, “Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(10), 103101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vermeulen, J. van Mameren, G. J. M. Stienen, E. J. G. Peterman, G. J. L. Wuite, and C. F. Schmidt, “Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77(1), 013704 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, N. A. Switz, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of Small Forces Using an Optical Trap,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.65(9), 2762–2768 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. I. Bell, “Models for the Specific Adhesion of Cells to Cells,” Science200(4342), 618–627 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stigler, F. Ziegler, A. Gieseke, J. C. Gebhardt, and M. Rief, “The complex folding network of single calmodulin molecules,” Science334(6055), 512–516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, B. Onoa, S. B. Smith, I. J. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Reversible unfolding of single RNA molecules by mechanical force,” Science292(5517), 733–737 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liphardt, S. Dumont, S. B. Smith, I. Tinoco, and C. Bustamante, “Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality,” Science296(5574), 1832–1835 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cecconi, E. A. Shank, C. Bustamante, and S. Marqusee, “Direct observation of the three-state folding of a single protein molecule,” Science309(5743), 2057–2060 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Woodside, P. C. Anthony, W. M. Behnke-Parks, K. Larizadeh, D. Herschlag, and S. M. Block, “Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid,” Science314(5801), 1001–1004 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, “Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules,” Science301(5641), 1914–1918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. T. Woodside and M. T. Valentine, “Single Molecule Manipulation Using Optical Traps,” in Handbook of Single Molecule Biophysics, P. Hinterdorfer, and A. Van Oijen, eds. (Springer, 2009), pp. 341–367.

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