Abstract

The spectral power distributions (SPDs) of solid-state sources were optimized for rendering the highest number of colors with a perceptually noticeable reduction in chroma (dulling) while maintaining the hue distortion below an acceptable threshold. Statistical color rendition indices derived from the analysis of color-shift vectors of 1269 Munsell samples were used in the objective functions for the optimization of SPDs of the color-dulling sources. The starting optimization point was the SPD composed of narrow yellow and blue (YB) emissions, which both dulls colors and distorts hues. Two methods were applied to reduce the hue-distorting effect of the narrow-band YB source. The first method, broadening the spectral bands, yields SPDs similar to that of a dichromatic white light-emitting diode (LED) with the partial conversion of narrow-band blue electroluminescence to wide-band yellow photoluminescence. The second method, multiplying the spectral bands, results in the SPDs similar to those of trichromatic clusters of red, yellow, and blue (RYB) and amber, green, and blue (AGB) LEDs.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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2012 (2)

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colors of museums artifacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Berns, “Designing white-light LED lighting for the display of art: A feasibility study,” Color Res. Appl. 36(5), 324–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl. 35(2), 85–93 (2010).

2009 (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: Asking the question,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1959 (1)

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

1940 (1)

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, “Designing white-light LED lighting for the display of art: A feasibility study,” Color Res. Appl. 36(5), 324–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Billger, M.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bliznikas, Z.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Caivano, J. L.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-S.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coron, G.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colors of museums artifacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guan, S.-S.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, N.-C.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huertas, R.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ivey, H. F.

Izadan, H.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavédrine, B.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colors of museums artifacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leverenz, H. W.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ou, L.-C.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petrulis, A.

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richter, K.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ronnier Luo, M.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shur, M.

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stanikunas, R.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.-L.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Švegžda, A.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Treméau, A.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tuzikas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Burgt, P.

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl. 35(2), 85–93 (2010).

van Kemenade, J.

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl. 35(2), 85–93 (2010).

Viénot, F.

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colors of museums artifacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Viliunas, V.

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vitta, P.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woodcock, A.

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Worthey, J. A.

J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: Asking the question,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Color Res. Appl. (5)

R. S. Berns, “Designing white-light LED lighting for the display of art: A feasibility study,” Color Res. Appl. 36(5), 324–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Ou, M. Ronnier Luo, P.-L. Sun, N.-C. Hu, H.-S. Chen, S.-S. Guan, A. Woodcock, J. L. Caivano, R. Huertas, A. Treméau, M. Billger, H. Izadan, and K. Richter, “A cross-cultural comparison of colour emotion for two-colour combinations,” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 23–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Worthey, “Color rendering: Asking the question,” Color Res. Appl. 28(6), 403–412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. van der Burgt and J. van Kemenade, “About color rendition of light sources: The balance between simplicity and accuracy,” Color Res. Appl. 35(2), 85–93 (2010).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng. (1)

C. L. Sanders, “Color preferences for natural objects,” Illum. Eng. 54, 452–456 (1959).

J. Cult. Herit. (1)

F. Viénot, G. Coron, and B. Lavédrine, “LEDs as a tool to enhance faded colors of museums artifacts,” J. Cult. Herit. 12(4), 431–440 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

V. Viliūnas, H. Vaitkevičius, R. Stanikūnas, A. Švegžda, and Z. Bliznikas, “LED-based metameric light sources: Rendering the colours of objects and other colour quality criteria,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(3), 321–330 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

M. S. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE 93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Toward an improved color rendering metric,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 59411G (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, A. Tuzikas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Statistical approach to color rendition properties of solid-state light sources,” Proc. SPIE 8123, 81230X 81230X-9 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Žukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (Wiley, 2002).

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae (Wiley, 2000).

Spectral Database, University of Joensuu Color Group, http://spectral.joensuu.fi/ .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b), and (c) Dependences of the maximized CDI (magenta triangles) and the width of the yellow band (yellow circles) on the maximal acceptable HDI for the two-component SPDs at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. The red, green, and black lines show the variation of GAI, Qg, and Ra . (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding dependences of the peak wavelengths of the two components (yellow and blue squares) and LER (pink lines).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b), and (c) Dependences of the maximized CDI (magenta triangles) on the maximal acceptable HDI for the SPDs composed of three 30-nm wide components at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. The red, green, and black lines show the variation of GAI, Qg, and Ra . (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding dependences of the peak wavelengths of the three components (red, yellow, and blue squares) and LER (pink lines).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimized model SPDs of color-dulling dichromatic (a) and trichromatic (b) light sources with HDImax = 50% at a CCT of 4500 K. (b) and (d) Corresponding distributions of the color-shift vectors for 218 Munsell samples of value /6 in the a*−b* chromaticity plane of the CIELAB color space. Open points, samples that have colors rendered with high fidelity; arrows, schematic chromaticity shifts of samples that have color distortions, such as increased or decreased saturation as well as distorted hue (the magnitude of each vector is normalized to the size of the individual MacAdam ellipse as in [21]).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Selected Dichromatic Color-dulling Light Sources with Broad Yellow Band

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of Selected Trichromatic Color-dulling Light Sources with Narrow Bands

Equations (2)

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F( λ 1 , λ 2 , Δ 1 , Δ 2 , Φ 1 , Φ 2 )= CDI | HDI HDI max .
F( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , Φ 1 , Φ 2 , Φ 3 )= CDI | HDI HDI max .

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