Abstract

The use of photoacoustic effect is a promising approach for biomedical imaging in living tissues. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has been demonstrated to image breast cancer, brain vasculature, arthritis and seizure focus owing to its rich optical contrast and high resolution in a single imaging modality. Here we report a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based intraoperative PAT (iPAT) technique, and demonstrate its ability to accurately map tumors in three-dimension and to inspect the completeness of tumor resection during surgery in a tumor-bearing mouse model. The MEMS imaging probe is small and has the potential to be conveniently used to guide surgical resection of tumors in the breast.

© 2012 OSA

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2010 (3)

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Shelton and B. E. Applegate, “Off-axis photoacoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(8), 1835–1838 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

2005 (2)

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (2)

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ameri, H.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Ames, F. C.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, B. E.

R. L. Shelton and B. E. Applegate, “Off-axis photoacoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(8), 1835–1838 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashley, S.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assersohn, L.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiera, G. V.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balch, G. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Buchholz, T. A.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannata, J. M.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Ceilley, E.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clough, K. B.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Ermilov, S. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Erpelding, T. N.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcou, M. C.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feig, B. W.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourquet, A.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, S.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottlieb, E.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Guo, Z.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, P.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Hao, Y.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzog, D.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Humayun, M. S.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Hunt, K. K.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagsi, R.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jankovic, L.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Khamapirad, T.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Kharine, A.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiser, W. L.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Krishnamurthy, S.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, G. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kuerer, H. M.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacewell, R. R.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Lewis, J. S.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohar, S.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margenthaler, J. A.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCorvey, M.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

McNeese, M. D.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehta, K.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Meric, F.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meunier, M.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, K. D.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Miller, T.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Mirza, N. Q.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mithani, S. K.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mohiuddin, M.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nash, A. G.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naziri, N.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, A. J.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Otto, P.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Pashley, M. D.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, G. H.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, S.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powles, T. J.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querci della Rovere, U.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinecke, D. R.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, H. E.

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacks, N.

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sastre-Garau, X.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelton, R. L.

R. L. Shelton and B. E. Applegate, “Off-axis photoacoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(8), 1835–1838 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shung, K. K.

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigal-Zafrani, B.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, J. F.

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Singletary, S. E.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Strom, E. A.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Taghian, A.

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, S.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valero, V.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hespen, J. C. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent-Salomon, A.

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlastos, G.

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Yang, H. C.

Yang, J. M.

Zhou, Q.

J. M. Yang, K. Maslov, H. C. Yang, Q. Zhou, K. K. Shung, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1591–1593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

Am. Surg. (1)

G. C. Balch, S. K. Mithani, J. F. Simpson, and M. C. Kelley, “Accuracy of intraoperative gross examination of surgical margin status in women undergoing partial mastectomy for breast malignancy,” Am. Surg. 71(1), 22–27, discussion 27–28 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ann. Oncol. (1)

L. Assersohn, T. J. Powles, S. Ashley, A. G. Nash, A. J. Neal, N. Sacks, J. Chang, U. Querci della Rovere, and N. Naziri, “Local relapse in primary breast cancer patients with unexcised positive surgical margins after lumpectomy, radiotherapy and chemoendocrine therapy,” Ann. Oncol. 10(12), 1451–1455 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

A. Taghian, M. Mohiuddin, R. Jagsi, S. Goldberg, E. Ceilley, and S. Powell, “Current perceptions regarding surgical margin status after breast-conserving therapy: results of a survey,” Ann. Surg. 241(4), 629–639 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, S. A. Ermilov, A. Conjusteau, T. Miller, R. R. Lacewell, K. Mehta, D. Herzog, S. Thompson, A. Stein, T. Khamapirad, M. McCorvey, and P. Otto, “Initial clinical evaluation of laser optoacoustic imaging system for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 106, S47 (2007).

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2008,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 58(2), 71–96 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

F. Meric, N. Q. Mirza, G. Vlastos, T. A. Buchholz, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, S. Krishnamurthy, G. H. Perkins, M. D. McNeese, E. A. Strom, V. Valero, and K. K. Hunt, “Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy,” Cancer 97(4), 926–933 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

R. L. Shelton and B. E. Applegate, “Off-axis photoacoustic microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 57(8), 1835–1838 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control (1)

Q. Zhou, X. Xu, E. Gottlieb, L. Sun, J. M. Cannata, H. Ameri, M. S. Humayun, P. Han, and K. K. Shung, “PMN-PT single crystal high frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed wave doppler application,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelec, Freq. Control 54(3), 668–675 (2007).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mod. Pathol. (1)

B. Sigal-Zafrani, J. S. Lewis, K. B. Clough, A. Vincent-Salomon, A. Fourquet, M. Meunier, M. C. Falcou, X. Sastre-Garau, and Institut Curie Breast Study Group, “Histological margin assessment for breast ductal carcinoma in situ: precision and implications,” Mod. Pathol. 17(1), 81–88 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Radiology (3)

R. A. Kruger, K. D. Miller, H. E. Reynolds, W. L. Kiser, D. R. Reinecke, and G. A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216(1), 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Jiang, Diffuse Optical Tomography: Principles and Applications (CRC Press, 2011).

American Cancer Society, Cancer facts and Figs. 2009 American cancer society, Atlanta, 2009.

American Cancer Society, Cancer facts and Figs. 2010 American cancer society, Atlanta, 2010.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2889 KB)     
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the MEMS probe. (a) 3D rendering of the probe (b) Photograph of the MEMS mirror with four actuators and five pads bonded with gold wire (Media 1). (c) Schematic of the miniaturized probe. A wedge-shaped mirror plated with aluminum is fixed in position to redirect the light beam to the MEMS mirror. (d) The MEMS mirror is fixed on a ramp with an angle of 22.5°

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performance of this system. (a) Axial and transverse resolutions versus target depth. (b) Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) versus target depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo three-dimensional (3D) tumor mapping in a mouse model. (a) Photograph of the mouse with tumor implanted in abdomen before surgery. (b) In vivo 3D photoacoustic image (Media 2). The distance shown along Z axis includes the tumor depth and the distance between the surface of transducer and mouse skin. (c) Photograph of the mouse after tumor resection. (d) 3D photoacoustic image of the tumor cavity after surgery to examine the completeness of the tumor resection. (e) Photograph of the tumor resection guided by 3D photoacoustic image shown in b.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantitative analysis of the photoacoustic slices and H&E stained sections. (a) Photoacoustic slice (along the red dashed line in Fig. 3(b)). Lines 1 and line 2 indicate the imaged dimensions along two different directions. (b) H&E stained section in the same position. Lines 1′ and line 2′ denote the measured dimensions in the H&E stained section. (c) Photograph of the tumor. All lines indicated by arrows in Fig. 4(a), Fig. 4(b) and Fig. 4(c) show the top margins of the tumor. (d). Transverse photoacoustic slice from another mouse. Lines 1 and line 2 indicate the imaged dimensions along two different directions. (e) H&E stained section in the same position. Lines 1′ and line 2′ present the actual dimensions in the H&E stained section. (f) Photograph of the tumor. All lines indicated by arrows in Fig. 4(d), Fig. 4(e) and Fig. 4(f) present the margins of the tumor in transverse plane. Scale bar, 500µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantitative analysis of photoacoustic images in correlation with H&E sections with increasing image depth. (a,b) PAT slices and H&E sections for a tumor beneath the skin of mouse (0.3mm depth) . (c,d) PAT slices and H&E sections for a tumor beneath the mouse skin and a 1mm-thick chicken breast. (e.f) PAT slices and H&E sections for a tumor beneath the mouse skin and a 1.8mm-thick chicken breast. White dashed lines show the surface of chicken breast. Scale bar, 500μm.

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