Abstract

Abstract: We compare the plasmonic response of two complementary structures to a scanning electron probe; a silver nanowire and a nanoslot in a silver film of comparable dimensions, desirable for their localized electromagnetic enhancement and enhanced optical transmission respectively. Through electron energy loss spectroscopy, multiple plasmonic resonant harmonics setup in both structures are resolved with inverted phase, in agreement with Babinet’s principle, and of consequence in the design and fabrication of nanostructures.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. Nicoletti, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, W. Sigle, P. A. van Aken, and P. A. Midgley, “Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: an electron energy loss study,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15371–15379 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Sigle, J. Nelayah, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Electron energy losses in Ag nanoholes--from localized surface plasmon resonances to rings of fire,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2150–2152 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. von Cube, S. Irsen, J. Niegemann, C. Matyssek, W. Hergert, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “Spatio-spectral characterization of photonic meta-atoms with electron energy-loss spectroscopy [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 1009 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Nicoletti, M. Wubs, N. A. Mortensen, W. Sigle, P. A. van Aken, and P. A. Midgley, “Surface plasmon modes of a single silver nanorod: an electron energy loss study,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15371–15379 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. von Cube, S. Irsen, J. Niegemann, C. Matyssek, W. Hergert, K. Busch, and S. Linden, “Spatio-spectral characterization of photonic meta-atoms with electron energy-loss spectroscopy [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 1009 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W. Sigle, J. Nelayah, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Electron energy losses in Ag nanoholes--from localized surface plasmon resonances to rings of fire,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2150–2152 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.-M.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berdel, W. E.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, S. N.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosman, M.

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charra, F.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortie, M. B.

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couillard, M.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillard, L.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erni, R.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hergert, W.

Hofer, F.

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irsen, S.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamaev, V.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keast, V. J.

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, C. T.

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Sigle, J. Nelayah, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Electron energy losses in Ag nanoholes--from localized surface plasmon resonances to rings of fire,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2150–2152 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kociak, M.

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korczak, Z.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostcheev, S.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotov, N.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumacheva, E.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. Y.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maaroof, A. I.

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, J. F.

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matyssek, C.

Mesters, R.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midgley, P. A.

Mortensen, N. A.

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N’Gom, M.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelayah, J.

Nicoletti, O.

Niegemann, J.

Norris, T. B.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ögüt, B.

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-H.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringnalda, J.

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Rossouw, D.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruoslahti, E.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, B.

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G.

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwöppe, C.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigle, W.

Singh, N.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebi, N.

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trügler, A.

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Aken, P. A.

Vardeny, Z. V.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vickery, J.

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Cube, F.

von Maltzahn, G.

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wubs, M.

Zaluzec, N. J.

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

B. Ögüt, R. Vogelgesang, W. Sigle, N. Talebi, C. T. Koch, and P. A. van Aken, “Hybridized metal slit eigenmodes as an illustration of Babinet’s principle,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6701–6706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

L. Douillard, F. Charra, Z. Korczak, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, G. Lerondel, P.-M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Short range plasmon resonators probed by photoemission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 935–940 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N’Gom, J. Ringnalda, J. F. Mansfield, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, N. J. Zaluzec, and T. B. Norris, “Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3200–3204 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rossouw, M. Couillard, J. Vickery, E. Kumacheva, and G. A. Botton, “Multipolar plasmonic resonances in silver nanowire antennas imaged with a subnanometer electron probe,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1499–1504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Bosman, V. J. Keast, M. Watanabe, A. I. Maaroof, and M. B. Cortie, “Mapping surface plasmons at the nanometre scale with an electron beam,” Nanotechnology 18(16), 165505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Maltzahn, J.-H. Park, K. Y. Lin, N. Singh, C. Schwöppe, R. Mesters, W. E. Berdel, E. Ruoslahti, M. J. Sailor, and S. N. Bhatia, “Nanoparticles that communicate in vivo to amplify tumour targeting,” Nat. Mater. 10(7), 545–552 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. N’Gom, S. Li, G. Schatz, R. Erni, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, and T. B. Norris, “Electron-beam mapping of plasmon resonances in electromagnetically interacting gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 113411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Schaffer, U. Hohenester, A. Trügler, and F. Hofer, “High-resolution surface plasmon imaging of gold nanoparticles by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. J. García de Abajo and M. Kociak, “Probing the photonic local density of states with electron energy loss spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 106804 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The nanoscale spectroscopy of a silver nanowire (blue) and nanoslot (red) probed by EELS (insert right). Energy loss peaks due to the excitation of longitudinal SPP waves are resolved at (0.42, 0.83, 1.24, and 1.59) eV in the nanowire, and at (0.42, 0.85, 1.27 and 1.64) eV in the nanoslot. The transverse surface plasmon resonance is also resolved at 3.47 eV in both structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mapping SPP excitations in a silver nanowire (left) and nanoslot (right) by EELS. Information relating to the geometry of the structures is acquired by large angle electron scattering incident on the ADF detector (A, B, scale bar = 100 nm). Simultaneously, low energy excitations are probed by dispersing small angle electron scattering in an energy filtering prism. Resonant SPP excitations are resolved by energy filtering the electron scattering intensity belonging to peaks in the EELS signal (C, D). The radiation patterns from the complementary structures are opposite in phase, in agreement with Babinet’s principle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A comparison of resonant mode line profiles setup in the nanoslot (red) and nanowire (blue). In addition to being 180 degrees out of phase, the antinode amplitude is significantly damped at the terminals of the nanowire in comparison to the nanoslot due to the radiative decay of the SPP at the sharply curved nanowire terminals. For clarity the raw data (grey, yellow) has been smoothed (blue, red), and the vertical lines represent the end locations of both structures.

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