Abstract

We demonstrate a backward transport of polystyrene (PS) particles (713-nm in diameter) in a pressure-driven fluidic flow using an optical fiber with a diameter of 710 nm. When a light of 980-nm wavelength was launched into the fiber in the opposite direction of the flow, the PS particles near the fiber were attracted onto the fiber and transported along the propagation direction of the light. The relationship between the velocity of the transported PS particles and the velocity of the flow at different input optical powers was investigated. Numerical analyses on both the optical field and the fluid field were carried out. The particle-size dependence of backward transport capability has also been investigated.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Xin and B. J. Li, “Targeted delivery and controllable release of nanoparticles using a defect-decorated optical nanofiber,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13285–13290 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Sheu, H. Y. Wu, and S. H. Chen, “Using a slightly tapered optical fiber to attract and transport microparticles,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5574–5579 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Zhao, Y. D. Li, J. W. Qi, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Quasi 3-dimensional optical trapping by two counter-propagating beams in nano-fiber,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5724–5729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, “Optical micromanipulation takes hold,” Nano Today 1(1), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, “Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grujic, O. G. Hellesø, J. P. Hole, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branches optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 13(1), 1–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Auroux, P. A.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, W. F.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S. H.

Chen, Y. F.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dees, B.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, “Optical micromanipulation takes hold,” Nano Today 1(1), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, “Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, A. H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcés-Chávez, V.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, “Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grujic, K.

Gunn-Moore, F.

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagen, N.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellesø, O. G.

Hole, J. P.

Iossifidis, D.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kariv, I.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Kimel, S.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, P.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, H. X.

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B. J.

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Xin and B. J. Li, “Targeted delivery and controllable release of nanoparticles using a defect-decorated optical nanofiber,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13285–13290 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. D.

Liang, H.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, S.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manz, A.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchand, P. J.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercer, E. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, J. W.

Raymond, D. E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, P.

K. Dholakia and P. Reece, “Optical micromanipulation takes hold,” Nano Today 1(1), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, D. R.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serey, X.

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheu, F. W.

Shin, D.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spalding, G. C.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, “Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, D. J.

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

Sun, Q.

Trang, T. C.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, K. T.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wu, H. Y.

Xin, H. B.

Xu, J. J.

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature 457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Schmidt, A. H. J. Yang, D. Erickson, and M. Lipson, “Optofluidic trapping and transport on solid core waveguides within a microfluidic device,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14322–14334 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemánek, P.

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. H.

Anal. Chem.

D. R. Reyes, D. Iossifidis, P. A. Auroux, and A. Manz, “Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology,” Anal. Chem. 74(12), 2623–2636 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and G. C. Spalding, “Extended-area optically induced organization of microparticles on a surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Čižmár, V. Garcés-Chávez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemánek, “Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 174101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

H. Liang, K. T. Vu, P. Krishnan, T. C. Trang, D. Shin, S. Kimel, and M. W. Berns, “Wavelength dependence of cell cloning efficiency after optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 70(3), 1529–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

D. J. Stevenson, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Light forces the pace: optical manipulation for biophotonics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 041503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip

D. Erickson, X. Serey, Y. F. Chen, and S. Mandal, “Nanomanipulation using near field photonics,” Lab Chip 11(6), 995–1009 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. X. Lei, Y. Zhang, X. Li, and B. J. Li, “Photophoretic assembly and migration of dielectric particles and Escherichia coli in liquids using a subwavelength diameter optical fiber,” Lab Chip 11(13), 2241–2246 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment. Fd shows the drag force on the particle (in blue) induced by the fluidic flow. Fg and Fs show the gradient and scattering forces, respectively, induced by the evanescent field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Backward transport of 713-nm PS particles in a fluidic flow with a nanofiber. (a−c) Input optical power: 12 mW; flow velocity: −2.7 μm/s. The inset of Fig. 2(a) is the SEM image of 710-nm NF while the inset of Fig. 2(b) is the SEM image of 713-nm PS particles. The scale bars in the two insets are 1 μm. (d−f) Input optical power: 45 mW; flow velocity: −2.7 μm/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Backward transport of 713-nm PS particles in a fluidic flow with a nanofiber. (a−c) Input optical power: 90 mW; flow velocity: −2.7 μm/s. (d−f) Input optical power: 90 mW; flow velocity: −8.5 μm/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backward transport velocity as a function of (a) input optical power and (b) flow velocity. Error bars represent the standard deviation of measured particle velocities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Longitudinal cross-section views of three-dimensional numerical simulations. (a) Optical field energy distribution around the 710-nm diameter NF and (b) velocity field of the flow and flow streamlines. Fs, Fg, and Fd represent scattering, gradient, and drag forces, respectively, acting on the PS particle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated particle velocity versus flow velocity for backward transport at different input optical power. Data points are experiment results at 90 mW optical power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Scattering force (Fs) and drag force (Fd) as a function of particle diameter at different flow velocity. (b) Maximum flow velocity for backward transport of different diameter PS particles at different input optical power.

Equations (1)

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F D = S ( T F n) dS.

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