Abstract

The photothermal stability of plasmonic nanoparticles is critically important to perform reliable photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. Recently, biodegradable nanoclusters composed of sub-5 nm primary gold particles and a biodegradable polymer have been reported as clinically-translatable contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging. After cellular internalization, the nanoclusters degrade into 5 nm primary particles for efficient excretion from the body. In this paper, three different sizes of biodegradable nanoclusters were synthesized and the optical properties and photothermal stability of the nanoclusters were investigated and compared to that of gold nanorods. The results of our study indicate that 40 nm and 80 nm biodegradable nanoclusters demonstrate higher photothermal stability compared to gold nanorods. Furthermore, 40 nm nanoclusters produce higher photoacoustic signal than gold nanorods at a given concentration of gold. Therefore, the biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters can be effectively used for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Aglyamov, and S. Emelianov, “Environment-dependent generation of photoacoustic waves from plasmonic nanoparticles,” Small8(1), 47–52 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Nonlinear photoacoustic signal increase from endocytosis of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4708–4710 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Homan, S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, B. Wang, S. Mallidi, and S. Emelianov, “Prospects of molecular photoacoustic imaging at 1064 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2663–2665 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Emelianov, P. C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aaron, K. Travis, N. Harrison, and K. Sokolov, “Dynamic imaging of molecular assemblies in live cells based on nanoparticle plasmon resonance coupling,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3612–3618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Giljohann and C. A. Mirkin, “Drivers of biodiagnostic development,” Nature462(7272), 461–464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles,” Small4(1), 26–49 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. Kumar, N. Harrison, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Plasmonic nanosensors for imaging intracellular biomarkers in live cells,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1338–1343 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Molecular specific optoacoustic imaging with plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express15(11), 6583–6588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy,” Nanomedicine (Lond)2(5), 681–693 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Wang, S. Teitel, and C. Dellago, “Surface-driven bulk reorganization of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.5(11), 2174–2178 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

P. Alivisatos, “The use of nanocrystals in biological detection,” Nat. Biotechnol.22(1), 47–52 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater.15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(18), 1389–1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aaron, J.

J. Aaron, K. Travis, N. Harrison, and K. Sokolov, “Dynamic imaging of molecular assemblies in live cells based on nanoparticle plasmon resonance coupling,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3612–3618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Molecular specific optoacoustic imaging with plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express15(11), 6583–6588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aglyamov, S.

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Aglyamov, and S. Emelianov, “Environment-dependent generation of photoacoustic waves from plasmonic nanoparticles,” Small8(1), 47–52 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, P.

P. Alivisatos, “The use of nanocrystals in biological detection,” Nat. Biotechnol.22(1), 47–52 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbouet, A.

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkenazi, S.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baffou, G.

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajaj, A.

S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bankson, J. A.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahill, D. G.

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y. C.

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-T.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-S.

Cheng, S.-H.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colvin, V.

N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles,” Small4(1), 26–49 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, K. C.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Day, M.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dellago, C.

Y. T. Wang, S. Teitel, and C. Dellago, “Surface-driven bulk reorganization of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.5(11), 2174–2178 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles,” Small4(1), 26–49 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dujardin, E.

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elghanian, R.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy,” Nanomedicine (Lond)2(5), 681–693 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy,” Nanomedicine (Lond)2(5), 681–693 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
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B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater.15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emelianov, S.

Emelianov, S. Y.

S. Y. Nam, L. M. Ricles, L. J. Suggs, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Nonlinear photoacoustic signal increase from endocytosis of gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4708–4710 (2012).
[PubMed]

S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Emelianov, P. C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, W.

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fish, J.

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, W.

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Aglyamov, and S. Emelianov, “Environment-dependent generation of photoacoustic waves from plasmonic nanoparticles,” Small8(1), 47–52 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, P. Kruizinga, K. Homan, and S. Emelianov, “Silica-coated gold nanorods as photoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers,” Nano Lett.11(2), 348–354 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gates, B.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gearheart, L.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(18), 1389–1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giljohann, D. A.

D. A. Giljohann and C. A. Mirkin, “Drivers of biodiagnostic development,” Nature462(7272), 461–464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, N.

J. Aaron, K. Travis, N. Harrison, and K. Sokolov, “Dynamic imaging of molecular assemblies in live cells based on nanoparticle plasmon resonance coupling,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3612–3618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kumar, N. Harrison, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Plasmonic nanosensors for imaging intracellular biomarkers in live cells,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1338–1343 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazle, J. D.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homan, K.

Huang, S. W.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy,” Nanomedicine (Lond)2(5), 681–693 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingram, D. R.

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itty Ipe, B.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, P. K.

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: interesting optical properties and recent applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy,” Nanomedicine (Lond)2(5), 681–693 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jana, N. R.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(18), 1389–1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R. C.

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, K. P.

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpiouk, A. B.

B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keblinski, P.

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, F.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kotov, N.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kruizinga, P.

Kumar, S.

S. Kumar, N. Harrison, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Plasmonic nanosensors for imaging intracellular biomarkers in live cells,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1338–1343 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, T.

B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Molecular specific optoacoustic imaging with plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express15(11), 6583–6588 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. S.

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letsinger, R. L.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewinski, N.

N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of nanoparticles,” Small4(1), 26–49 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P. C.

S. Y. Emelianov, P. C. Li, and M. O’Donnell, “Photoacoustics for molecular imaging and therapy,” Phys. Today62(5), 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.-C.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, L.-W.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. L.

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallidi, S.

Malpica, A.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Marty, R.

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayers, B.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meakin, P.

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

D. A. Giljohann and C. A. Mirkin, “Drivers of biodiagnostic development,” Nature462(7272), 461–464 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Cao, R. C. Jin, and C. A. Mirkin, “Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection,” Science297(5586), 1536–1540 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misra, P.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mout, R.

S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucic, R. C.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, “Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles,” Science277(5329), 1078–1081 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(18), 1389–1393 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, A.

S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murthy, A. K.

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. Y.

Nguyen, R.

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater.15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
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K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

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W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
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S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
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S. Kumar, N. Harrison, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Plasmonic nanosensors for imaging intracellular biomarkers in live cells,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1338–1343 (2007).
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K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

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Rivera, B.

L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
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Shah, J.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
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Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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Y.-S. Chen, W. Frey, S. Kim, K. Homan, P. Kruizinga, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Enhanced thermal stability of silica-coated gold nanorods for photoacoustic imaging and image-guided therapy,” Opt. Express18(9), 8867–8878 (2010).
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B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
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J. Aaron, K. Travis, N. Harrison, and K. Sokolov, “Dynamic imaging of molecular assemblies in live cells based on nanoparticle plasmon resonance coupling,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3612–3618 (2009).
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J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
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S. Mallidi, T. Larson, J. Aaron, K. Sokolov, and S. Emelianov, “Molecular specific optoacoustic imaging with plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express15(11), 6583–6588 (2007).
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S. Kumar, N. Harrison, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Plasmonic nanosensors for imaging intracellular biomarkers in live cells,” Nano Lett.7(5), 1338–1343 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sokolov, K. V.

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
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S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
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J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
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K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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Sun, Y.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
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J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
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S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
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S. J. Yoon, S. Mallidi, J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, K. P. Johnston, K. V. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Utility of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters in photoacoustic imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3751–3753 (2010).
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J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
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H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
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Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
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Y. T. Wang, S. Teitel, and C. Dellago, “Surface-driven bulk reorganization of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.5(11), 2174–2178 (2005).
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J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aaron, K. Travis, N. Harrison, and K. Sokolov, “Dynamic imaging of molecular assemblies in live cells based on nanoparticle plasmon resonance coupling,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3612–3618 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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K. Homan, S. Kim, Y.-S. Chen, B. Wang, S. Mallidi, and S. Emelianov, “Prospects of molecular photoacoustic imaging at 1064 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2663–2665 (2010).
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B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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Y. T. Wang, S. Teitel, and C. Dellago, “Surface-driven bulk reorganization of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.5(11), 2174–2178 (2005).
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L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
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L. R. Hirsch, R. J. Stafford, J. A. Bankson, S. R. Sershen, B. Rivera, R. E. Price, J. D. Hazle, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Nanoshell-mediated near-infrared thermal therapy of tumors under magnetic resonance guidance,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(23), 13549–13554 (2003).
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Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
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M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
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Yan, H.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-S.

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
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Yang, P.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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B. Wang, E. Yantsen, T. Larson, A. B. Karpiouk, S. Sethuraman, J. L. Su, K. Sokolov, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Plasmonic intravascular photoacoustic imaging for detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2212–2217 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavuz, M. S.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. J.

Zhang, Q.

M. S. Yavuz, Y. Cheng, J. Chen, C. M. Cobley, Q. Zhang, M. Rycenga, J. Xie, C. Kim, K. H. Song, A. G. Schwartz, L. V. Wang, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light,” Nat. Mater.8(12), 935–939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmer, J. P.

H. S. Choi, W. Liu, P. Misra, E. Tanaka, J. P. Zimmer, B. Itty Ipe, M. G. Bawendi, and J. V. Frangioni, “Renal clearance of quantum dots,” Nat. Biotechnol.25(10), 1165–1170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

J. M. Tam, J. O. Tam, A. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, L. L. Ma, K. Travis, K. P. Johnston, and K. V. Sokolov, “Controlled assembly of biodegradable plasmonic nanoclusters for near-infrared imaging and therapeutic applications,” ACS Nano4(4), 2178–2184 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sanchot, G. Baffou, R. Marty, A. Arbouet, R. Quidant, C. Girard, and E. Dujardin, “Plasmonic nanoparticle networks for light and heat concentration,” ACS Nano6(4), 3434–3440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.

S. Rana, A. Bajaj, R. Mout, and V. M. Rotello, “Monolayer coated gold nanoparticles for delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.64(2), 200–216 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Y. Xia, P. Yang, Y. Sun, Y. Wu, B. Mayers, B. Gates, Y. Yin, F. Kim, and H. Yan, “One-dimensional nanostructures: synthesis, characterization, and applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)15(5), 353–389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Jana, L. Gearheart, and C. J. Murphy, “Seed-mediated growth approach for shape-controlled synthesis of spheroidal and rod-like gold nanoparticles using a surfactant template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(18), 1389–1393 (2001).
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Cancer Res.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Res.63(9), 1999–2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chem. Mater.

B. Nikoobakht and M. A. El-Sayed, “Preparation and growth mechanism of gold nanorods (NRs) using seed-mediated growth method,” Chem. Mater.15(10), 1957–1962 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Radiol.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol.70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer

W. Evans, R. Prasher, J. Fish, P. Meakin, P. Phelan, and P. Keblinski, “Effect of aggregation and interfacial thermal resistance on thermal conductivity of nanocomposites and colloidal nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer51(5-6), 1431–1438 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Agarwal, S. W. Huang, M. O'Donnell, K. C. Day, M. Day, N. Kotov, and S. Ashkenazi, “Targeted gold nanorod contrast agent for prostate cancer detection by photoacoustic imaging,” J. Appl. Phys.102(6), 064701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

J. Shah, S. Park, S. Aglyamov, T. Larson, L. Ma, K. Sokolov, K. Johnston, T. Milner, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging and temperature measurement for photothermal cancer therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt.13(3), 034024 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Chen, C.-W. Wei, J. S. Souris, S.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Chen, C.-S. Yang, P.-C. Li, and L.-W. Lo, “Enhanced photoacoustic stability of gold nanorods by silica matrix confinement,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(1), 016010 (2010).
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J. Phys. Chem. B

P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of different size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(14), 7238–7248 (2006).
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Langmuir

J. M. Tam, A. K. Murthy, D. R. Ingram, R. Nguyen, K. V. Sokolov, and K. P. Johnston, “Kinetic assembly of near-IR-active gold nanoclusters using weakly adsorbing polymers to control the size,” Langmuir26(11), 8988–8999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

Y. T. Wang, S. Teitel, and C. Dellago, “Surface-driven bulk reorganization of gold nanorods,” Nano Lett.5(11), 2174–2178 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ge, Y. Kang, T. A. Taton, P. V. Braun, and D. G. Cahill, “Thermal transport in au-core polymer-shell nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.5(3), 531–535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmission electron microscopy images of 40, 80, 130 nm nanoclusters. (b) Size distribution of 40, 80, 130 nm nanoclusters measured by DLS. (c) UV-Vis-NIR spectra of 40, 80, and 130 nm nanocluster and gold nanorods suspensions at 1.2 mg/mL of gold concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of an experimental setup for photoacoustic signal measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV-Vis-NIR spectra of (a) 40 nm, (b) 80 nm, (c) 130 nm nanoclusters and (d) gold nanorods before and after laser irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses with various fluences.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photoacoustic signal intensity of the 40, 80, 130 nm nanoclusters and the nanorods as a function of number of pulses with fluence (a) 4 mJ/cm2, (b) 8 mJ/cm2, (c) 12 mJ/cm2, and (d) 20 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photoacoustic images of the phantom with inclusions containing the (a) 40, (b) 80, (c) 130 nanoclusters, and (d) nanorods. (e) An ultrasound image of the hypoechoic inclusion with hyperechoic background. The photoacoustic images were acquired using 16 mJ/cm2 laser fluence. (f) Photoacoustic signal intensity of the 40, 80, 130 nm nanoclusters and the nanorods with respect to number of pulses at fluence 16 mJ/cm2.

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