Abstract

A frameless multi-view display module that consists of an array of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based projectors, a sparse lenticular lens, and a vertical diffuser is proposed to provide a large-screen autostereoscopic display. The projectors are positioned in a horizontal vector form or in a matrix form in front of the transfer screen in order to produce the same number of three-dimensional (3D) pixels in each cylindrical lens constituting the lenticular lens to increase the horizontal resolution of the module. The projectors generate a slanted two-dimensional array of dots on the vertical diffuser to provide a large number of viewpoints. The experimental display system was constructed using four projectors. The system had a 3D resolution of 160 × 120, and it provided 64 views. The screen size was 14.4 in.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).
  2. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Okoshi, A. Yano, and Y. Fukumori, “Curved triple-mirror screen for projection-type three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 10(3), 482–489 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 1–8 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).
  11. S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).
  12. W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Urey and M. Sayinta, “An apparatus for displaying 3D images,” PCT WO2009/136218 A1.
  15. M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).
  17. M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723707 (2009).

2011 (3)

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723707 (2009).

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

2006 (1)

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

2005 (2)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 1–8 (2003).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Ando, H.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

Balogh, T.

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

Champion, M.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chellappan, K.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-Y.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-L.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S.-C.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dodgson, N. A.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erden, E.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Freeman, M.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fukumori, Y.

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iwasawa, S.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kawakita, M.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

Koike, T.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

Kuo, M.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

Madhaven, S.

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matusik, W.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Oikawa, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okoshi, T.

Pfister, H.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pockett, L.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Said, A.

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723707 (2009).

Sakai, H.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Surman, P.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 1–8 (2003).
[Crossref]

Talvala, E.-V.

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723707 (2009).

Tsai, C.-H.

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Urey, H.

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Utsugi, K.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

Wu, C.-S.

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

Yano, A.

Yano, S.

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

AMC Trans. Graph. (1)

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes,” AMC Trans. Graph. 23, 814–824 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Computer (1)

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (3)

W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Tsai, C.-S. Wu, C.-Y. Chen, and S.-C. Cheng, “A high-resolution autostereoscopic display system with a wide viewing angle using an LCOS projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 647–653 (2010).
[Crossref]

W.-L. Chen, H.-H. Huang, T. H. Hsu, M.-H. Kuo, and C.-H. Tsai, “Optical simulation for cross-talk evaluation and improvement of autostereoscopic 3-D displays with a projector array,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 662–667 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

M. Freeman, M. Champion, and S. Madhaven, “Scanned laser pico-projectors: seeing the big picture (with a small device),” Opt. Photon. News 20(5), 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (2)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Urey, K. Chellappan, E. Erden, and P. Surman, “State of the art in stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 540–555 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

Y. Takaki, “A novel 3D display using an array of LCD panels,” Proc. SPIE 5003, 1–8 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, K. Utsugi, and T. Koike, “High-density light field reproduction using overlaid multiple projection images,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723709 (2009).

A. Said and E.-V. Talvala, “Spatial-angular analysis of displays for reproduction of light fields,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 723707 (2009).

T. Balogh, “The HoloVizio system,” Proc. SPIE 6055, 60550U (2006).

S. Iwasawa, M. Kawakita, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Implementation of autostereoscopic HD projection display with dense horizontal parallax,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630T (2011).

Other (2)

H. Urey and M. Sayinta, “An apparatus for displaying 3D images,” PCT WO2009/136218 A1.

T. Okoshi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic Press, New York, 1976).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Known large-screen autostereoscopic displays using multiple projectors: (a) superposition type and (b) tiling type.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Large-screen autostereoscopic displays consist of a two-dimensional array of multi-view display modules using MEMS projectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of proposed multi-view display module using MEMS projectors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal sectional view of the module showing paths of rays emitted from (a) left projector, (b) center projector, and (c) right projector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical sectional view of the module showing paths of rays emitted from projectors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Arrangement of MEMS projectors and the generation of 3D pixels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dot arrangement of MEMS projector to increase the number of viewpoints.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Arrangement of four MEMS projectors and common screen area: (a) horizontal sectional view, (b) vertical sectional view, and (c) 3D view.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Slanted slit array.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental multi-view display system using four MEMS projectors and a sparse lenticular lens.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Generation of 3D pixels in cylindrical lenses using (a) one, (b) two, (c) three, and (d) four projectors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

3D image generated by experimental display system captured from (a) left, (b) center, and (c) right.

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