Abstract

We have applied Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI) to image an intact pollen grain from Convallaria majalis. This approach allows us to resolve internal structures without the requirement to chemically treat or slice the sample into thin sections. Coherent X-ray diffraction data from this pollen grain–composed of a hologram and higher resolution scattering information–was collected at a photon energy of 1820 eV and reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. A comparison with images recorded using transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that, while the resolution of these images is limited by the available flux and mechanical stability, we observed structures internal to the pollen grain–the intine/exine separations and pore dimensions–finer than 60 nm. The potential of this technique for further biological imaging applications is discussed.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

L. Kovacik, J. M. Plitzko, M. Grote, and R. Reichelt, “Electron tomography of structures in the wall of hazel pollen grains,” J. Struct. Biol.166(3), 263–271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Miao, H. N. Chapman, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and K. O. Hodgson, “Taking X-ray diffraction to the limit: macromolecular structures from femtosecond X-ray pulses and diffraction microscopy of cells with synchrotron radiation,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33(1), 157–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Takahashi, J. W. Nowicke, G. L. Webster, S. S. Orli, and S. Yankowski, “Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga),” Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.110(1-2), 1–66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. Grote, “In situ localization of pollen allergens by immunogold electron microscopy: allergens at unexpected sites,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.118(1), 1–6 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

M. Grote, S. Vrtala, and R. Valenta, “Monitoring of two allergens, Bet v I and profilin, in dry and rehydrated birch pollen by immunogold electron microscopy and immunoblotting,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.41(5), 745–750 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Breiteneder, F. Ferreira, K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C. Ebner, M. Breitenbach, H. Rumpold, D. Kraft, and O. Scheiner, “Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties,” Eur. J. Biochem.212(2), 355–362 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Grote, “Ultrastructural morphology and allergen detection in birch pollen after aqueous, anhydrous-liquid, and vapor fixation techniques,” Microsc. Res. Tech.21(3), 242–248 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
[PubMed]

1971 (1)

L. Belin and J. R. Rowley, “Demonstration of birch pollen allergen from isolated pollen grains using immunofluorescence and a single radial immunodiffusion technique,” Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol.40(6), 754–769 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbey, B.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amirbekian, B.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barraza, J.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barth, R.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beetz, T.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belin, L.

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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
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J. Miao, H. N. Chapman, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and K. O. Hodgson, “Taking X-ray diffraction to the limit: macromolecular structures from femtosecond X-ray pulses and diffraction microscopy of cells with synchrotron radiation,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33(1), 157–176 (2004).
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J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
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H. Breiteneder, F. Ferreira, K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C. Ebner, M. Breitenbach, H. Rumpold, D. Kraft, and O. Scheiner, “Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties,” Eur. J. Biochem.212(2), 355–362 (1993).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
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X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
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Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
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J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
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X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
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Jefimovs, K.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
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C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
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Johnson, I.

J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kewish, C. M.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khounsary, A.

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirz, J.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, H. N. Chapman, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and K. O. Hodgson, “Taking X-ray diffraction to the limit: macromolecular structures from femtosecond X-ray pulses and diffraction microscopy of cells with synchrotron radiation,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33(1), 157–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovacik, L.

L. Kovacik, J. M. Plitzko, M. Grote, and R. Reichelt, “Electron tomography of structures in the wall of hazel pollen grains,” J. Struct. Biol.166(3), 263–271 (2009).
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Kraft, D.

H. Breiteneder, F. Ferreira, K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C. Ebner, M. Breitenbach, H. Rumpold, D. Kraft, and O. Scheiner, “Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties,” Eur. J. Biochem.212(2), 355–362 (1993).
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S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
[PubMed]

Larabell, C. A.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Gros, M. A.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legnini, D.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeGros, M. A.

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, A.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeshima, K.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancuso, A. P.

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, S.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, G.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNulty, I.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, H.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, H. N. Chapman, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, and K. O. Hodgson, “Taking X-ray diffraction to the limit: macromolecular structures from femtosecond X-ray pulses and diffraction microscopy of cells with synchrotron radiation,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct.33(1), 157–176 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neiman, A. M.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, K. O. Hodgson, T. Ishikawa, C. A. Larabell, M. A. LeGros, and Y. Nishino, “Imaging whole Escherichia coli bacteria by using single-particle x-ray diffraction,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100(1), 110–112 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisius, T.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nowicke, J. W.

M. Takahashi, J. W. Nowicke, G. L. Webster, S. S. Orli, and S. Yankowski, “Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga),” Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.110(1-2), 1–66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the X-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys.59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orli, S. S.

M. Takahashi, J. W. Nowicke, G. L. Webster, S. S. Orli, and S. Yankowski, “Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga),” Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.110(1-2), 1–66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkinson, D. Y.

D. Y. Parkinson, G. McDermott, L. D. Etkin, M. A. Le Gros, and C. A. Larabell, “Quantitative 3-D imaging of eukaryotic cells using soft X-ray tomography,” J. Struct. Biol.162(3), 380–386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, D.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peele, A. G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1638–1640 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pernot, P.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettenburger, K.

H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
[PubMed]

Pettit, M. E.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Kovacik, J. M. Plitzko, M. Grote, and R. Reichelt, “Electron tomography of structures in the wall of hazel pollen grains,” J. Struct. Biol.166(3), 263–271 (2009).
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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
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C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
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I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
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C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
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G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
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H. M. Quiney, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “Iterative image reconstruction algorithms using wave-front intensity and phase variation,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1638–1640 (2005).
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L. Kovacik, J. M. Plitzko, M. Grote, and R. Reichelt, “Electron tomography of structures in the wall of hazel pollen grains,” J. Struct. Biol.166(3), 263–271 (2009).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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J. M. Rodenburg, A. C. Hurst, A. G. Cullis, B. R. Dobson, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, K. Jefimovs, and I. Johnson, “Hard-X-Ray Lensless Imaging of Extended Objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(3), 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
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H. Breiteneder, F. Ferreira, K. Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C. Ebner, M. Breitenbach, H. Rumpold, D. Kraft, and O. Scheiner, “Four recombinant isoforms of Cor a I, the major allergen of hazel pollen, show different IgE-binding properties,” Eur. J. Biochem.212(2), 355–362 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
[PubMed]

Shah, S. S.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
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Shapiro, D.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
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I. McNulty, A. Khounsary, Y. P. Feng, Y. Qian, J. Barraza, C. Benson, and D. Shu, “A beamline for 1–4 keV microscopy and coherence experiments at the Advanced Photon Source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.67(9), 3372 (1996).
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A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
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Song, C.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
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Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
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Staier, F.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrener, J.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, R.

C. Song, H. Jiang, A. P. Mancuso, B. Amirbekian, L. Peng, R. Sun, S. S. Shah, Z. H. Zhou, T. Ishikawa, and J. Miao, “Quantitative imaging of single, unstained viruses with coherent x Rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 158101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Takahashi, J. W. Nowicke, G. L. Webster, S. S. Orli, and S. Yankowski, “Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga),” Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.110(1-2), 1–66 (2000).
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Y. Nishino, Y. Takahashi, N. Imamoto, T. Ishikawa, and K. Maeshima, “Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent X-ray diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(1), 018101 (2009).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107(2), 529–534 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David, and F. Pfeiffer, “High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. R. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, and D. Sayre, “Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(43), 15343–15346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilley, L.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timmins, J.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, C. Q.

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treusch, R.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. J.

X. Huang, J. Nelson, J. Kirz, E. Lima, S. Marchesini, H. Miao, A. M. Neiman, D. Shapiro, J. Steinbrener, A. Stewart, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Soft X-ray diffraction microscopy of a frozen hydrated yeast cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valenta, R.

S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Grote, S. Vrtala, and R. Valenta, “Monitoring of two allergens, Bet v I and profilin, in dry and rehydrated birch pollen by immunogold electron microscopy and immunoblotting,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.41(5), 745–750 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Breiteneder, K. Pettenburger, A. Bito, R. Valenta, D. Kraft, H. Rumpold, O. Scheiner, and M. Breitenbach, “The gene coding for the major birch pollen allergen Betv1, is highly homologous to a pea disease resistance response gene,” EMBO J.8(7), 1935–1938 (1989).
[PubMed]

van Ree, R.

S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Riessen, G.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol.149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vine, D. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, S.

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrtala, S.

M. Grote, S. Vrtala, and R. Valenta, “Monitoring of two allergens, Bet v I and profilin, in dry and rehydrated birch pollen by immunogold electron microscopy and immunoblotting,” J. Histochem. Cytochem.41(5), 745–750 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vrtala, M. Grote, M. Duchêne, R. van Ree, D. Kraft, O. Scheiner, and R. Valenta, “Properties of tree and grass pollen allergens: reinvestigation of the linkage between solubility and allergenicity,” Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.102(2), 160–169 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, G. L.

M. Takahashi, J. W. Nowicke, G. L. Webster, S. S. Orli, and S. Yankowski, “Pollen morphology, exine structure, and systematics of Acalyphoideae (Euphorbiaceae), part 3. Tribes Epiprineae (Epiprinus, Symphyllia, Adenochlaena, Cleidiocarpon, Koilodepas, Cladogynos, Cephalocrotonopsis, Cephalocroton, Cephalomappa), Adelieae (Adelia, Crotonogynopsis, Enriquebeltrania, Lasiocroton, Leucocroton), Alchorneae (Orfilea, Alchornea, Coelebogyne, Aparisthmium, Bocquillonia, Conceveiba, Gavarretia), Acalypheae pro parte (Ricinus, Adriana, Mercurialis, Leidesia, Dysopsis, Wetria, Cleidion, Sampantaea, Macaranga),” Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.110(1-2), 1–66 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckert, E.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiegart, L.

E. Lima, L. Wiegart, P. Pernot, M. Howells, J. Timmins, F. Zontone, and A. Madsen, “Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy for biological samples,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(19), 198102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhein, T.

A. P. Mancuso, T. Gorniak, F. Staier, O. M. Yefanov, R. Barth, C. Christophis, B. Reime, J. Gulden, A. Singer, M. E. Pettit, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, N. Guerassimova, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, S. Eisebitt, E. Weckert, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent imaging of biological samples with femtosecond pulses at the free-electron laser FLASH,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035003 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, D. Legnini, C. Roehrig, E. Wrobel, E. Huwald, G. van Riessen, B. Abbey, T. Beetz, J. Irwin, M. Feser, B. Hornberger, I. McNulty, K. A. Nugent, and A. G. Peele, “An in-vacuum x-ray diffraction microscope for use in the 0.7-2.9 keV range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83(3), 033703 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. T. Putkunz, M. A. Pfeifer, A. G. Peele, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, and I. McNulty, “Fresnel coherent diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express18(11), 11746–11753 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data,” New J. Phys.12(3), 035020 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Vine, G. J. Williams, B. Abbey, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, M. D. De Jonge, I. McNulty, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Ptychographic Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. A80(6), 063823 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Williams, E. Hanssen, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, J. Clark, B. Abbey, G. Cadenazzi, M. D. de Jonge, S. Vogt, L. Tilley, and K. A. Nugent, “High-resolution X-ray imaging of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells,” Cytometry A73(10), 949–957 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, B. B. Dhal, C. Q. Tran, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, D. Paterson, and M. D. de Jonge, “Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(2), 025506 (2006).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the FCDI experiment. Coherent x-rays are focused using a zone plate to a focal plane upstream of the sample. The diverging beam (with phase curvature) is incident on a sub-region of the pollen grain. The radiation diffracted by the pollen grain propagates to the detector where it is measured. The radiation within the footprint of the direct beam forms an in-line hologram, while that outside is forms a coherent diffraction pattern. In our experiment the following geometrical conditions were used: z1 = 11.8 mm, z2 = 737.5 mm, z3 = 1.05 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured FCDI data. (a) In-line holographic region of the data. (b) The same data shown on a truncated and logarithmic intensity scale to highlight the coherent scattering from the pollen grain. (c) White field data, measured with the sample removed from the beam. (d) Detail of coherent scattering (also on a truncated, logarithmic scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reconstructed (amplitude) image of the pollen grain region with color bar. We interpret the higher density features in the body of the reconstruction (highlighted with white arrows “i”) as consistent with projections of surface protrusions. The pore (approximately 1 μm diameter) is indicated with a double-headed white arrow (“ii”). The intine/exine wall separation is also indicated with a white double-headed arrow (“iii”). The estimated separation in the FCDI reconstruction (1.0 μm) is broadly consistent with that measured in the EM image shown in (b; 1.4 μm). (b) An electron micrograph of the external wall of a pollen grain taken from the same batch as in (a), with the intine/exine wall separation and surface protrusions indicated with red arrows. The difference in contrast between the X-ray and EM images is attributed to the different preparation techniques used in each case, in particular the staining, dehydration steps and sectioning required for the TEM sample.

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