Abstract

The attenuation coefficient of the water body is not directly retrievable from measurements of unpolarized water-leaving radiance. Based on extensive radiative transfer simulations using the vector radiative transfer code RayXP, it is demonstrated that the underwater degree of linear polarization (DoLP) is closely related to the attenuation-to-absorption ratio (c/a) of the water body, a finding that enables retrieval of the attenuation coefficient from measurements of the Stokes components of the upwelling underwater polarized light field. The relationship between DoLP and the c/a ratio is investigated for the upwelling polarized light field for a complete set of viewing geometries, at several wavelengths in the visible part of the spectrum; for varying compositions of the aquatic environment, whose constituents include phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and color dissolved organic matter (CDOM); and for varying microphysical properties such as the refractive index and the slope of the Junge-type particle size distribution (PSD). Consequently, this study reveals the possibility for retrieval of additional inherent optical properties (IOPs) from air- or space-borne DoLP measurements of the water-leaving radiation.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization techniques for the retrieval of water parameters from above and below water polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8372, 83720T, (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Assessment of a bidirectional reflectance distribution correction of above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.51(2), 220–237 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Neural network approach to retrieve the inherent optical properties of the ocean from observations of MODIS,” Appl. Opt.50(19), 3168–3186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt.50(24), 4873–4893 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Influence of polarimetric satellite data measured in the visible region on aerosol detection and on the performance of atmospheric correction procedure over open ocean waters,” Opt. Express19(21), 20960–20983 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt.50(30), 5842–5860 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the water body using polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8030, 803003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ibrahim, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, and S. Ahmed, “Exploring the relation between polarized light fields and physical-optical characteristics of the ocean for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE8160, 81600H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express18(10), 10432–10445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express17(7), 5666–5683 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2003

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1999

1997

1989

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34(8), 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

1976

1974

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16(4), 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. W. Kattawar, S. J. Hitzfeld, and J. Brinstock, “Explicit form of Mie phase matrix for multiple scattering calculations in I, Q, U and V representation,” J. Atmos. Sci.30(2), 289–295 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

V. A. Timofeyeva, “Degree of polarization of light in turbid media,” Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Fizika Atmosfery. I. Okeana.6, 513–522 (1970).

1961

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A Comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr.6(2), 129–148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light-field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix - effect of interface refractive-index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr.34(8), 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. T.

Ahmed, S.

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization techniques for the retrieval of water parameters from above and below water polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8372, 83720T, (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Assessment of a bidirectional reflectance distribution correction of above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.51(2), 220–237 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the water body using polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8030, 803003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Neural network approach to retrieve the inherent optical properties of the ocean from observations of MODIS,” Appl. Opt.50(19), 3168–3186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt.50(30), 5842–5860 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ibrahim, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, and S. Ahmed, “Exploring the relation between polarized light fields and physical-optical characteristics of the ocean for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE8160, 81600H (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Gilerson, J. Zhou, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, J. Schalles, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Fluorescence component in the reflectance spectra from coastal waters. Dependence on water composition,” Opt. Express15(24), 15702–15721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S. A.

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, A. Morel, V. Fournier-Sicre, F. Fell, and D. Stramski, “Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr.48(2), 843–859 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhandari, P.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bracco, G.

Brady, P.

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt.40(18), 2929–2945 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinstock, J.

G. W. Kattawar, S. J. Hitzfeld, and J. Brinstock, “Explicit form of Mie phase matrix for multiple scattering calculations in I, Q, U and V representation,” J. Atmos. Sci.30(2), 289–295 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt.45(22), 5542–5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carder, K. L.

Chaikovskaya, L. I.

Chami, M.

T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Influence of polarimetric satellite data measured in the visible region on aerosol detection and on the performance of atmospheric correction procedure over open ocean waters,” Opt. Express19(21), 20960–20983 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011).
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A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011).
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T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
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A. M. Ciotti, M. R. Lewis, and J. J. Cullen, “Assessment of the relationships between dominant cell size in natural phytoplankton communities and the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient,” Limnol. Oceanogr.47(2), 404–417 (2002).
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R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. X. Zhang, and J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. I. Analytic Jacobians from the linearized CAO-DISORT model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra.104(3), 428–449 (2007).
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F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009).
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Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
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S. Hlaing, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Assessment of a bidirectional reflectance distribution correction of above-water and satellite water-leaving radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt.51(2), 220–237 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization techniques for the retrieval of water parameters from above and below water polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8372, 83720T, (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ibrahim, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, and S. Ahmed, “Exploring the relation between polarized light fields and physical-optical characteristics of the ocean for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE8160, 81600H (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, S. Hlaing, A. Tonizzo, T. Legbandt, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory: assessment of above-water radiometric measurement uncertainties using collocated multi and hyperspectral systems,” Appl. Opt.50(30), 5842–5860 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt.50(24), 4873–4893 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the water body using polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8030, 803003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, A. Gilerson, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Estimating particle composition and size distribution from polarized water-leaving radiance,” Appl. Opt.50(25), 5047–5058 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE7825, 78250F (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express17(7), 5666–5683 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

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[CrossRef]

P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H10 (2011).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009).
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Weidemann, A.

You, Y.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011).
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Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt.50(24), 4873–4893 (2011).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
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Zappa, C. J.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Sssr Fizika Atmosfery. I. Okeana.

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J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res-Atmos.114(D1), D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res-Oceans

P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H10 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans112(C5), C05026 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. W. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans116, C00H05 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophys. Res-Oceans106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra.

R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, H. Eide, W. Li, K. X. Zhang, and J. Stamnes, “Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. I. Analytic Jacobians from the linearized CAO-DISORT model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra.104(3), 428–449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

T. Harmel and M. Chami, “Influence of polarimetric satellite data measured in the visible region on aerosol detection and on the performance of atmospheric correction procedure over open ocean waters,” Opt. Express19(21), 20960–20983 (2011).
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Proc. SPIE

A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization techniques for the retrieval of water parameters from above and below water polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8372, 83720T, (2012).
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A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, and S. Ahmed, “Estimation of the attenuation coefficient of the water body using polarimetric observations,” Proc. SPIE8030, 803003 (2011).
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A. Ibrahim, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, and S. Ahmed, “Exploring the relation between polarized light fields and physical-optical characteristics of the ocean for remote sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE8160, 81600H (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonizzo, T. Harmel, A. Ibrahim, S. Hlaing, I. Ioannou, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, B. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. Ahmed, “Sensitivity of the above water polarized reflectance to the water composition,” Proc. SPIE7825, 78250F (2010).
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T. Harmel, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, A. Gilerson, J. Chowdhary, and S. Ahmed, “Measuring underwater polarization field from above-water hyperspectral instrumentation for water composition retrieval,” Proc. SPIE8175, 817509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, F. Waquet, K. Knobelspiesse, M. Ottaviani, J. Redemann, L. Travis, and M. Mishchenko, “Sensitivity of multiangle, multispectral polarimetric remote sensing over open oceans to water-leaving radiance: analyses of RSP data acquired during the MILAGRO campaign,” Remote Sens. Environ.118, 284–308 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev.16(4), 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.eumetsat.int/groups/pps/documents/document/pdf_peps_mrd.pdf

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light scattering by small particles (Dover Publications, 1981).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, absorption, and emission of light by small particles (Cambridge University Press, 2002).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow Diagram of the bio-optical and RT models for the generation of the data set.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of hydrosol plus CDOM absorption coefficients ‘asol + ag’, hydrosol scattering coefficients ‘bsol’, total attenuation to absorption ratio ‘ctotal/atotal’, and total single scattering albedo ‘ωtotal’, at 440, 550, and 665 nm wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase function and normalized polarization elements of the scattering matrix from Mie calculations for one case as an illustration for nnap = 1.18, nph = 1.06, ξnap = 4.0, ξph = 4.0, [NAP] = 1.45 g m−3, and [Chl] = 10.5 mg m−3 at 440 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DoLP just below water surface vs. viewing angle between −70° and 80° (0° for vertically downward), sun zenith 30° and relative azimuth plane 0°, 40°, and 90° at three wavelengths (440, 550, and 665 nm). The grey color gradation corresponds to varying values of c/a. Lighter grey is for lower c/a ratio, while darker is for higher c/a ratio. The dashed vertical lines correspond to the angles of the borders of Snell’s window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The relation between DoLP and c/a at three wavelengths at different viewing angles and for sun relative azimuth of 0° for three slopes of the NAP PSD, i.e. 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5. Sun zenith angle is fixed at 30°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The relation between DoLP and c/a at three wavelengths at different viewing angles and for sun relative azimuth of 40° for three slopes of the NAP PSD, i.e. 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5. Sun zenith angle is fixed at 30°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The relation between DoLP and c/a at three wavelengths at different viewing angles and for sun relative azimuth of 90° for three slopes of the NAP PSD, i.e. 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5. Sun zenith angle is fixed at 30°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fitted relationship between DoLP at θview = 40° and φview = 90° and c/a ratio at three wavelengths for three different NAP slopes of the particle size distribution (PSD).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Synoptic view of the coefficient of determination R2 at just below the air-water interface for sun relative azimuth from 0° to 360° (0° azimuth is for sun and sensor are in opposition) and viewing angle of upwelling polarized light from 0° to 80° (0° viewing angle is for sensor looking vertically downward). Dashed lines correspond to the borders of Snell’s window.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Synoptic view of the fitting coefficients χ and γ at three wavelengths and ξnap = 4.0 at just below the air-water interface for sun relative azimuth from 0° to 360° (0° azimuth is for sun and sensor are in opposition) and viewing angle of upwelling polarized light from 0° to 80° (0° viewing angle is for sensor looking vertically downward).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Synoptic view of the coefficient of determination R2 at just above the air-water interface for sun relative azimuth from 0° to 360° (0° azimuth is for sun and sensor are in opposition) and viewing angle of upwelling polarized light from 0° to 80° (0° viewing angle is for sensor looking vertically downward).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

DoLP versus the sun zenith angle θSun = 0°-70° for θview = 60°, φview = 90° at 440, 550, and 665 nm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ S(τ,n) τ =  ω( τ ) 4π F( τ,n, n ' )S( τ, n ' )d n ' S(τ,n),
DoLP= Q 2 + U 2 I ,
F( θ scat )= [ F 11 F 12 0 0 F 12 F 22 0 0 0 0 F 33 F 34 0 0 F 34 F 44 ]
F Bulk = b nap × F nap + b ph × F ph b nap + b ph ,
{ ( c a ) fit } ξ nap =3.5,4.0,4.5 = { χ (DoLP) γ } ξ nap =3.5,4.0,4.5 ,
R 2 = SSR SST = i=1 10125 [ ( c a (DoL P i ) ) fit ( c a ) ¯ fit ] 2 i=1 10125 [ ( ( c a ) i ) ( c a ) ¯ fit ] 2 ,

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