Abstract

We propose an ultra-sensitive integrated photonic sensor structure using an InP-based triangular resonator, in which a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gold film is applied on a total internal reflection mirror. We have analyzed and optimized the triangular resonator sensor structure with an extremely small SPR mirror sensing area of 3.3 × 0.35 μm2. Due to the large phase shift in the SPR mirror, a significantly enhanced sensitivity of 930 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the maximum peak shift of half free spectral range have been obtained at the SPR angle of 24.125° with Au thickness of 33.4 nm for the change of the refractive index Δn = 1x10−3. This value is larger than the previous largest value in micro resonator-type biosensors. Moreover, the proposed triangular resonator sensor can be easily made in a micro structure with optical source integration.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. s3K. Zinoviev, C. Dominguez, J. A. Plaza, V. J. C. Busto, and L. M. Lechuga, “A novel optical waveguide microcantilever sensor for the detection of nanomechanical forces,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(5), 2132–2138 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Y. Oh, D. G. Kim, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small plasmonic array sensor using wideband sources,” Electron. Lett.47(10), 611–612 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Y. Oh, D. G. Kim, and Y. W. Choi, “The characterization of GH shifts of surface plasmon resonance in a waveguide using the FDTD method,” Opt. Express17(23), 20714–20720 (2009).
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2012 (1)

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Oh, D. G. Kim, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small plasmonic array sensor using wideband sources,” Electron. Lett.47(10), 611–612 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Prospects for gold nanorod particles in diagnostic and therapeutic applications,” Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.25(1), 93–112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

s3K. Zinoviev, C. Dominguez, J. A. Plaza, V. J. C. Busto, and L. M. Lechuga, “A novel optical waveguide microcantilever sensor for the detection of nanomechanical forces,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(5), 2132–2138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1968 (2)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl.216, 398–410 (1968).

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrés, M. V.

Arnold, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Busto, V. J. C.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

Choi, Y. W.

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cortie, M. B.

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Prospects for gold nanorod particles in diagnostic and therapeutic applications,” Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.25(1), 93–112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagli, N.

D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

Dominguez, C.

Dulashko, Y.

Fan, X.

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko, and X. Fan, “Optical liquid ring resonator sensor,” Opt. Express15(22), 14376–14381 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

Guo, L. J.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Heebner, J. E.

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ki, H. C.

Kim, D. G.

G. Y. Oh, D. G. Kim, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small plasmonic array sensor using wideband sources,” Electron. Lett.47(10), 611–612 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Oh, D. G. Kim, and Y. W. Choi, “The characterization of GH shifts of surface plasmon resonance in a waveguide using the FDTD method,” Opt. Express17(23), 20714–20720 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. T.

Kim, T. U.

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. J.

Kolchenko, V.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kondoh, J.

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Lechuga, L. M.

Ling, T.

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, Y.

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, G. Y.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. A: Hadrons Nucl.216, 398–410 (1968).

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, C.

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pissuwan, D.

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Prospects for gold nanorod particles in diagnostic and therapeutic applications,” Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.25(1), 93–112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plaza, J. A.

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. A23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Rajmangal, R.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiokawa, S.

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Suter, J. D.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

A. Suzuki, J. Kondoh, Y. Matsui, S. Shiokawa, and K. Suzuki, “Development of novel optical waveguide surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor with dual light emitting diodes,” Sens. Actuators B106(1), 383–387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valenzuela, S. M.

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Prospects for gold nanorod particles in diagnostic and therapeutic applications,” Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.25(1), 93–112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Z.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, I.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, and S. Chu, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. H.

Yi, J. C.

D. G. Kim, G. Y. Oh, W. K. Choi, H. J. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. C. Ki, S. T. Kim, H. J. Ko, T. U. Kim, M. H. Yang, H. J. Kim, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, N. Dagli, and Y. W. Choi, “Extremely small multimode-interference coupled triangular resonator with sharp angle of incidence,” Opt. Express16(25), 21053–21058 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, “Total internal reflection mirror-based InGaAsP ring resonators integrated with optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1899–1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, V.

Zhu, H.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, H. Oveys, and X. Fan, “Liquid core optical ring resonator label-free biosensor array for lab-on-a-chip development,” Proc. SPIE6380, 63800F, 63800F-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zinoviev, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. I. Shopova, R. Rajmangal, S. Holler, and S. Arnold, “Plasmonic enhancement of a whispering-gallery-mode biosensor for single nanoparticle detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(24), 243104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(4), 043704 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev. (1)

D. Pissuwan, S. M. Valenzuela, and M. B. Cortie, “Prospects for gold nanorod particles in diagnostic and therapeutic applications,” Biotechnol. Genet. Eng. Rev.25(1), 93–112 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view schematic MMI-coupled triangular resonator with SPR and TIR mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triangular resonator schemes used for the theoretical analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of reflectance according to the SPR angle change due to the refractive index increment of 0.0077 on the metal layer, (b) reflectance variation and sensitivity as a function of Au thickness for changing the refractive index of 0.1, (c) full width half maximum of the resonance peak and the measurable sensing range as a function of Au thickness.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SPR characteristics obtained by the theory and the FDTD method, (b) evanescent field intensity as a function of incident angle at 35 nm Au thickness.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resonance peak shift of the triangular resonator as a function of the incident angle of the SPR mirror for Δn = 1x10-3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FDTD simulation result of the triangular surface plasmon resonator.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Sensitivity of the triangular resonator as a function of Au thickness, (b) θSPR difference for Δn = 1x10−3 at SPR mirror.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Reflectance of the triangular resonator without the Au film on the SPR mirror, (b) reflectance of the triangular resonator with 35 nm of the Au film on the SPR mirror.

Equations (3)

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[ E t1 E t2 ]=[ t κ κ * t * ][ E i1 E i2 ],
E i2 =α e jθ E t2 ,
P t1 = | E t1 | 2 = α 2 + | t | 2 2α| t |cosθ 1+ α 2 | t | 2 2α| t |cosθ .

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