Abstract

We extend coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) to a high numerical aperture reflection mode geometry for the first time. We derive a coordinate transform that allows us to rewrite the recorded far-field scatter pattern from a tilted object as a uniformly spaced Fourier transform. Using this approach, FFTs in standard iterative phase retrieval algorithms can be used to significantly speed up the image reconstruction times. Moreover, we avoid the isolated sample requirement by imaging a pinhole onto the specimen, in a technique termed apertured illumination CDI. By combining the new coordinate transformation with apertured illumination CDI, we demonstrate rapid high numerical aperture imaging of samples illuminated by visible laser light. Finally, we demonstrate future promise for this technique by using high harmonic beams for high numerical aperture reflection mode imaging.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Habib, O. Guilbaud, B. Zielbauer, D. Zimmer, M. Pittman, D. R. Kazamias, C. Montet, and T. Kuehl, “Low energy prepulse for 10 Hz operation of a soft-x-ray laser,” Opt. Express20, 10128–10137 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19, 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (9)

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault and E. Veit, “X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys.1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bryan, P. Fry, T. Schrefl, M. R. Gibbs, D. A. Allwood, M.-Y. Im, and P. Fischer, “Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46, 963–967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Marathe, S. Kim, S. Kim, C. Kim, H. C. Kang, P. V. Nickles, and D. Y. Noh, “Coherent diffraction surface imaging in reflection geometry,” Opt. Express18, 7253–7262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett.35, 2585–2587 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Matter.8, 291–298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, Q. Shen, and T. Earnest, “Extending X-ray crystallography to allow the imaging of non-crystalline materials, cells, and single protein complexes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.59, 387–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, “Studying nanoscale magnetism and its dynamics with soft X-ray microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44, 1900–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Ackermann and , “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics1, 336–342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl.21, 37–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20, 40–55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Elser, “Random projections and the optimization of an algorithm for phase retrieval,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.36, 2995–3007 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Miao and D. Sayre, “On possible extensions of X-ray crystallography through diffraction-pattern oversampling,” Acta. Crystallogr. A56, 596–605 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, and J. Kirz, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Durfee, A. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, W.

W. Ackermann and , “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics1, 336–342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Alessi, D.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alisauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allwood, D. A.

M. Bryan, P. Fry, T. Schrefl, M. R. Gibbs, D. A. Allwood, M.-Y. Im, and P. Fischer, “Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46, 963–967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

Backus, S.

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrill, M.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryan, M.

M. Bryan, P. Fry, T. Schrefl, M. R. Gibbs, D. A. Allwood, M.-Y. Im, and P. Fischer, “Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46, 963–967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, and J. Kirz, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

Chen, M.-C.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

Clark, J. N.

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Kim, S.

Kim, S. S.

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[CrossRef]

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Miao, J.

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19, 22470–22479 (2011).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, Q. Shen, and T. Earnest, “Extending X-ray crystallography to allow the imaging of non-crystalline materials, cells, and single protein complexes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.59, 387–410 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Mucke, O. D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Durfee, A. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, E. L. Townsend, D. A. Raymondson, W. F. Schlotter, Y. Liu, C. S. Menoni, L. Rong, C.-C. Chen, J. Miao, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Ultrahigh 22 nm resolution coherent diffractive imaging using a desktop 13 nm high harmonic source,” Opt. Express19, 22470–22479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, A. R. Libertun, A. Paul, E. Gagnon, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. A. Bartels, Y. Liu, and D. T. Attwood, “Highly coherent light at 13 nm generated by use of quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett.29, 1357–1399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Noh, D. Y.

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parks, D.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, M.

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putkunz, C. T.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raines, K. S.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raymondson, D. A.

Robinson, I.

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Matter.8, 291–298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rodenburg, J. M.

Rodríguez, J. A.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rong, L.

Roy, S.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

C. Durfee, A. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salha, S.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, R. L.

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

J. Miao and D. Sayre, “On possible extensions of X-ray crystallography through diffraction-pattern oversampling,” Acta. Crystallogr. A56, 596–605 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlotter, W. F.

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrefl, T.

M. Bryan, P. Fry, T. Schrefl, M. R. Gibbs, D. A. Allwood, M.-Y. Im, and P. Fischer, “Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46, 963–967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seaberg, M.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seaberg, M. D.

Seu, K. A.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Q.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, Q. Shen, and T. Earnest, “Extending X-ray crystallography to allow the imaging of non-crystalline materials, cells, and single protein complexes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.59, 387–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shipton, E.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shpyrko, O. G.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrener, J.

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault and E. Veit, “X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys.1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torrance, A.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, E. L.

Tripathi, A.

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, J. J.

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veit, E.

P. Thibault and E. Veit, “X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys.1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woolston, M.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zielbauer, B.

Zimmer, D.

Acta. Crystallogr. A (1)

J. Miao and D. Sayre, “On possible extensions of X-ray crystallography through diffraction-pattern oversampling,” Acta. Crystallogr. A56, 596–605 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. (1)

P. Thibault and E. Veit, “X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys.1, 237–255 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, Q. Shen, and T. Earnest, “Extending X-ray crystallography to allow the imaging of non-crystalline materials, cells, and single protein complexes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.59, 387–410 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Abbey, G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, J. N. Clark, C. T. Putkunz, A. Torrance, I. McNulty, T. M. Levin, A. G. Peele, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative coherent diffractive imaging of an integrated circuit at a spatial resolution of 20 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 214101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn. (2)

P. Fischer, “Studying nanoscale magnetism and its dynamics with soft X-ray microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Magn.44, 1900–1904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bryan, P. Fry, T. Schrefl, M. R. Gibbs, D. A. Allwood, M.-Y. Im, and P. Fischer, “Transverse field-induced nucleation pad switching modes during domain wall injection,” IEEE Trans. Magn.46, 963–967 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (1)

D. R. Luke, “Relaxed averaged alternating reflections for diffraction imaging,” Inverse Probl.21, 37–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (1)

V. Elser, “Random projections and the optimization of an algorithm for phase retrieval,” J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.36, 2995–3007 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, T. Kimura, T. Watanabe, H. Kinoshita, and Y. Nagata, “Imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask patterns using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope based on coherent diffraction imaging,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B29, 06F503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Matter. (1)

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Matter.8, 291–298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (4)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation,” Nat. Photonics4, 822–832 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman and K. A. Nugent, “Coherent lensless X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics4, 833–839 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Ackermann and , “Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window,” Nat. Photonics1, 336–342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Roy, D. Parks, K. A. Seu, R. Su, J. J. Turner, W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, S. Cabrini, and S. D. Kevan, “Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry,” Nat. Photonics5, 243–245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge, and I. McNulty, “Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging,” Nat. Phys.4, 394–398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, and J. Kirz, “Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature400, 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Raines, S. Salha, R. L. Sandberg, H. Jiang, J. A. Rodríguez, B. P. Fahimian, H. C. Kapteyn, J. Du, and J. Miao, “Three-dimensional structure determination from a single view,” Nature463, 214–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M.-C. Chen, P. Arpin, T. Popmintchev, M. Gerrity, B. Zhang, M. Seaberg, D. Popmintchev, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Bright, coherent, ultrafast soft x-ray harmonics spanning the water window from a tabletop light source,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 173901 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Durfee, A. Rundquist, S. Backus, C. Herne, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high-order harmonics in hollow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 2187–2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

D. Alessi, Y. Wang, B. Luther, L. Yin, D. Martz, M. Woolston, Y. Liu, M. Berrill, and J. Rocca, “Efficient Excitation of Gain-Saturated Sub-9-nm-Wavelength Tabletop Soft-X-Ray Lasers and Lasing Down to 7.36 nm,” Phys. Rev. X1, 021023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

J. Nelson, X. Huang, J. Steinbrener, D. Shapiro, J. Kirz, S. Marchesini, A. M. Neiman, J. J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.107, 7235–7239 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tripathi, J. Mohanty, S. H. Dietze, O. G. Shpyrko, E. Shipton, E. E. Fullerton, S. S. Kim, and I. McNulty, “Dichroic coherent diffractive imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108, 13393–13398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Alisauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balciunas, O. D. Mucke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernandez-Garcia, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science336, 1287–1291 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. M. Cowley, Diffraction Physics, 3rd ed. (Elsevier Science B.V., Danvers, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The apertured illumination CDI scheme isolates an extended transparent sample by imaging a aperture onto the sample plane. (a) A schematic of the setup, including a traditional bright-field microscope image of the sample. (b) The scatter pattern recorded by the detector in the Fourier plane scaled by the fourth root. (c) The exit surface wave reconstructed from the scatter pattern. The circle outlines the area illuminated by the aperture. (d) A reconstruction when the illumination is subtracted out. (e) Overlay of the images from many scan positions. The circles represent the outline of the aperture illumination at different scan positions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering geometry for (a) normally incident sample illumination and (b) obliquely incident illumination. The unit vectors n̂S and n̂D are normal to the sample and detector planes, respectively. The unprimed coordinate system refers to the detector coordinates (D), the primed coordinate system refers to the untilted sample coordinates (S), the double primed coordinate system refers to the tilted sample coordinates, and α is the angle between the tilted and untilted sample coordinate systems. q⃗ is the momentum transfer vector, defined as k⃗fk⃗i, where k⃗i is the incident wavevector and k⃗f is the scattered wavevector. Note that the incident illumination vector, k⃗i, is anti-parallel to the detector-normal vector n̂D, in both (a) and (b). Also note that the origin of the unprimed coordinate system is located at the sample position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mapping the diffraction from a tilted sample to a diffraction pattern linear in frequency space. (a) The raw data from light scattered by the sample at an angle of 30 degrees. (b) The data mapped onto a linear grid in frequency space. The dotted black lines are added to highlight the curvature seen in the tilted sample diffraction shown in (a). Both images have been scaled by the fourth root.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Visible laser apertured illumination and tilted sample correction by reconstructing a 1951 USAF resolution target in a reflection mode geometry. (a) A schematic of the setup. Note that a negative USAF pattern is shown, but a positive USAF was used in the experiment. (b) Several reconstructions with different scan positions are overlaid to show the AICDI reconstruction. (c) A traditional bright-field microscopy image of the sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EUV microscope image in reflection mode of a 2D array of nickel nano-pillars.(a) A schematic of the setup. Uncorrected (b) and corrected (c) diffraction patterns. The data in (c) was resampled onto a coarser grid, shown in (d), containing only the peak intensity points. (e) Reconstructed image using the diffraction pattern in (d). The missing data shown in (b), (c) and (d) was left as a free parameter and is a result of a beam stop used to prevent saturation of the bright zero order peak on the camera.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f ( q ) = μ 4 π V ( r ) exp 2 π i q r d r
q = k f k i = k 0 [ sin θ cos ϕ x ^ + sin θ sin ϕ y ^ + ( cos θ 1 ) z ^ ]
q = k 0 [ x x 2 + y 2 + R 2 x ^ + y x 2 + y 2 + R 2 y ^ + ( R x 2 + y 2 + R 2 1 ) z ^ ]
I r ( x , y , z ) = ( 1 + x 2 + y 2 R 2 ) I ( x , y , z ) ,
I r ( x , y , z ) I r ( q x , q y , q z ) ,
q ( x , y , z ) = R y ( α ) q ( x , y , z )
q ( x , y , z ) = R x ( β ) R y ( α ) q ( x , y , z ) = ( q x cos α q z sin α q x sin α sin β + q y cos β + q z cos α sin β q x sin α sin β q y sin β + q z cos α cos β )

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