Abstract

This paper describes a method for particle manipulation in a liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguide system. Step-index and graded-index waveguides were modeled with consideration for, respectively, miscible and immiscible core and cladding fluids. The characteristic motions of four different particles with refractive indices of 1.59, 1.48, 1.37, and 1.22 were examined. The guided beam was assumed to be Gaussian in shape. Our results showed that high-refractive-index particles converged at the center of the core fluid due to a positive gradient force, whereas low-refractive-index particles converged at the flow periphery. The nonlinearity of the particle motion increased as the flow velocity and the guided beam waist decreased and the laser power and the particle size increased. The initial beam waist of the guided beam in the graded-index waveguide did not significantly affect the characteristics of the particle motion due to the effects of diffusion.

© 2012 OSA

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2012

I. M. White, S. H. Yazdi, and W. W. Yu, “Optofluidic SERS: synergizing photonics and microfluidics for chemical and biological analysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. DOI: (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shen, H. Hwang, Y. K. Hahn, and J.-K. Park, “Label-free cell separation using a tunable magnetophoretic repulsion force,” Anal. Chem.84(7), 3075–3081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Hebert, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “Toward label-free optical fractionation of blood-optical force measurements of blood cells,” Anal. Chem.83(14), 5666–5672 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Jung, A. J. Chung, and D. Erickson, “Analysis of liquid-to-solid coupling and other performance parameters for microfluidically reconfigurable photonic systems,” Opt. Express18(11), 10973–10984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Vig, R. Marie, E. Jensen, and A. Kristensen, “Optofluidic microscope with 3D spatial resolution,” Opt. Express18(5), 4158–4169 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics6, 1005–1009 (2010).

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lall, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “On-the-fly cross flow laser guided separation of aerosol particles based on size, refractive index and density-theoretical analysis,” Opt. Express18(26), 26775–26790 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. Peng, B. Yao, S. Yan, W. Zhao, and M. Lei, “Trapping of low-refractive-index particles with azimuthally polarized beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(12), 2242–2247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenauer and M. J. Vellekoop, “A versatile liquid-core/liquid-twin-cladding waveguide micro flow cell fabricated by rapid prototyping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 163702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Nondimensional analysis of particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Opt.48(22), 4291–4296 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grujic, O. G. Hellesø, J. P. Hole, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Sorting of polystyrene microspheres using a Y-branched optical waveguide,” Opt. Express13(1), 1–7 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1998

1997

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem.69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J.61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adolfsson, K.

J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. W.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J.61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beech, J. P.

J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boczko, E. M.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boelte, K. C.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, W. F.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, P. A.

Chen, C. H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, P.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiang, I.-K.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L. K.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-H.

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, A. J.

Conroy, R. S.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuschieri, A.

De Nuccio, E.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dees, B.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Ding, X.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Jung, A. J. Chung, and D. Erickson, “Analysis of liquid-to-solid coupling and other performance parameters for microfluidically reconfigurable photonic systems,” Opt. Express18(11), 10973–10984 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischbach, M. A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, A. H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, T. G.

Gahagan, K. T.

Gao, Y.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garstecki, P.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godin, J. M.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grujic, K.

Hagen, N.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, Y. K.

F. Shen, H. Hwang, Y. K. Hahn, and J.-K. Park, “Label-free cell separation using a tunable magnetophoretic repulsion force,” Anal. Chem.84(7), 3075–3081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, S. J.

C. G. Hebert, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “Toward label-free optical fractionation of blood-optical force measurements of blood cells,” Anal. Chem.83(14), 5666–5672 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lall, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “On-the-fly cross flow laser guided separation of aerosol particles based on size, refractive index and density-theoretical analysis,” Opt. Express18(26), 26775–26790 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebert, C. G.

C. G. Hebert, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “Toward label-free optical fractionation of blood-optical force measurements of blood cells,” Anal. Chem.83(14), 5666–5672 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellesø, O. G.

Hoi, S.-K.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hole, J. P.

Holm, S. H.

J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.-B.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. J.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H.

F. Shen, H. Hwang, Y. K. Hahn, and J.-K. Park, “Label-free cell separation using a tunable magnetophoretic repulsion force,” Anal. Chem.84(7), 3075–3081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imasaka, T.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem.69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaacs, R. J.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishidzu, Y.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem.69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, E.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics6, 1005–1009 (2010).

Jung, E. E.

Kaneta, T.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem.69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kariv, I.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. B.

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Nondimensional analysis of particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Opt.48(22), 4291–4296 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Nondimensional analysis of particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Opt.48(22), 4291–4296 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

Lall, A. A.

Lee, K. H.

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lei, L.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lei, M.

Li, D.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.-M.

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, P. C.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-C. S.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. Q.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, Y.-H.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, M. P.

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marie, R.

Marr, D. W. M.

Mayers, B. T.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercer, E. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardo, A.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, N.

T. Kaneta, Y. Ishidzu, N. Mishima, and T. Imasaka, “Theory of optical chromatography,” Anal. Chem.69(14), 2701–2710 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narushima, T.

Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics6, 1005–1009 (2010).

Oakey, J.

Ohl, C. D.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, H.

Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics6, 1005–1009 (2010).

Park, J.-K.

F. Shen, H. Hwang, Y. K. Hahn, and J.-K. Park, “Label-free cell separation using a tunable magnetophoretic repulsion force,” Anal. Chem.84(7), 3075–3081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, K. E.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, F.

Prentice, P. A.

Prentiss, M.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, D. E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenauer, M.

M. Rosenauer and M. J. Vellekoop, “A versatile liquid-core/liquid-twin-cladding waveguide micro flow cell fabricated by rapid prototyping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 163702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarkar, R.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarro, P. M.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

S. Lin, E. Schonbrun, and K. Crozier, “Optical manipulation with planar silicon microring resonators,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2408–2411 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serey, X.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, K.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, F.

F. Shen, H. Hwang, Y. K. Hahn, and J.-K. Park, “Label-free cell separation using a tunable magnetophoretic repulsion force,” Anal. Chem.84(7), 3075–3081 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sibbett, W.

Song, W.

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sow, C.-H.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

Squier, J.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, H. J.

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Nondimensional analysis of particle behavior during cross-type optical particle separation,” Appl. Opt.48(22), 4291–4296 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tegenfeldt, J. O.

J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terray, A.

C. G. Hebert, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “Toward label-free optical fractionation of blood-optical force measurements of blood cells,” Anal. Chem.83(14), 5666–5672 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Lall, A. Terray, and S. J. Hart, “On-the-fly cross flow laser guided separation of aerosol particles based on size, refractive index and density-theoretical analysis,” Opt. Express18(26), 26775–26790 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, F. S.

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasdekis, A. E.

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, M. J.

M. Rosenauer and M. J. Vellekoop, “A versatile liquid-core/liquid-twin-cladding waveguide micro flow cell fabricated by rapid prototyping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 163702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vestad, T.

Vezenov, D. V.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vig, A. L.

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. J.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
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D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wolfe, D. B.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, S.

Yan, Y.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.-M.

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

Yazdi, S.

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. M. White, S. H. Yazdi, and W. W. Yu, “Optofluidic SERS: synergizing photonics and microfluidics for chemical and biological analysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. DOI: (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. S.

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Radiation forces on a microsphere in an arbitrary refractive index profile,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(3), 407–414 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. M. White, S. H. Yazdi, and W. W. Yu, “Optofluidic SERS: synergizing photonics and microfluidics for chemical and biological analysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. DOI: (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Anal. Chem.

J. Sun, Y. Gao, R. J. Isaacs, K. C. Boelte, P. C. Lin, E. M. Boczko, and D. Li, “Simultaneous on-chip DC dielectrophoretic cell separation and quantitative separation performance characterization,” Anal. Chem.84(4), 2017–2024 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Kim, S. Y. Yoon, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Cross-type optical particle separation in a microchannel,” Anal. Chem.80(7), 2628–2630 (2008).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S.-K. Hoi, Z.-B. Hu, Y. Yan, C.-H. Sow, and A. A. Bettiol, “A microfluidic device with integrated optics for microparticle switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(18), 183501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, “Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(18), 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Three-dimensional microfluidic liquid-core/liquid-cladding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(2), 021109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenauer and M. J. Vellekoop, “A versatile liquid-core/liquid-twin-cladding waveguide micro flow cell fabricated by rapid prototyping,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(16), 163702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Song, A. E. Vasdekis, Z. Li, and D. Psaltis, “Optofluidic evanescent dye laser based on a distributed feedback circular grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(16), 161110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofluidic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, D. B. Wolfe, and G. M. Whitesides, “Integrated fluorescent light source for optofluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(4), 041104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J.61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Lab Chip

Y. Yang, A. Q. Liu, L. Lei, L. K. Chin, C. D. Ohl, Q. J. Wang, and H. S. Yoon, “A tunable 3D optofluidic waveguide dye laser via two centrifugal Dean flow streams,” Lab Chip11(18), 3182–3187 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Lim, S.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, and S.-M. Yang, “Fluorescent liquid-core/air-cladding waveguides towards integrated optofluidic light sources,” Lab Chip8(9), 1580–1585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shi, S. Yazdi, S.-C. S. Lin, X. Ding, I.-K. Chiang, K. Sharp, and T. J. Huang, “Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW),” Lab Chip11(14), 2319–2324 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, C. H. Chen, F. S. Tsai, J. M. Godin, and Y.-H. Lo, “Human mammalian cell sorting using a highly integrated micro-fabricated fluorescence-activated cell sorter (microFACS),” Lab Chip10(12), 1567–1573 (2010).
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J. P. Beech, S. H. Holm, K. Adolfsson, and J. O. Tegenfeldt, “Sorting cells by size, shape and deformability,” Lab Chip12(6), 1048–1051 (2012).
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K. H. Lee, S. B. Kim, K. S. Lee, and H. J. Sung, “Enhancement by optical force of separation in pinched flow fractionation,” Lab Chip11(2), 354–357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

I. M. White, S. H. Yazdi, and W. W. Yu, “Optofluidic SERS: synergizing photonics and microfluidics for chemical and biological analysis,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. DOI: (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Lee, S. Y. Yoon, S. B. Kim, K. H. Lee, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Assessment of cross-type optical particle separation system,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.13(1), 9–17 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Y.-F. Chen, X. Serey, R. Sarkar, P. Chen, and D. Erickson, “Controlled photonic manipulation of proteins and other nanomaterials,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1633–1637 (2012).
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M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, “Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching,” Nat. Biotechnol.23(1), 83–87 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Jiang, T. Narushima, and H. Okamoto, “Nonlinear optical effects in trapping nanoparticles with femtosecond pulses,” Nat. Photonics6, 1005–1009 (2010).

Nature

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides,” Nature457(7225), 71–75 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

R. Bernini, E. De Nuccio, A. Minardo, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Liquid-core/liquid-cladding integrated silicon ARROW waveguides,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2062–2066 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Y. Fainman, L. P. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

H. Bruus, Theoretical Microfluidics (Oxford University Press, 2008).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguide particle separation system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Force balance in a guided light beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index profiles along the direction of flow in the L2 waveguide particle separation systems: (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Trajectories of particles with various refractive indices in the (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Trajectories of particles in fluids with a range of velocities in a microfluidic channel: (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Trajectories of particles in the L2 waveguide systems through which were guided laser beams with various powers: (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Particle trajectories for various particle sizes: (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Trajectories of particles for various initial beam waists: (a) step-index and (b) GRIN waveguides.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F net = m p d U dt = F rad + F v ,
F v =6πμ r p U,
m p d 2 x d t 2 = F s 6πμ r p ( dx dt U ),
m p d 2 y d t 2 = F g 6πμ r p dy dt .
F s = 1 2c 0 2π 0 π/2 I( ρ,x ) [ n( ρ ){ 1+R( ρ )cos2 θ 1 } n( ρ )T( ρ k )T( ρ )cosα ] r p 2 sin2 θ 1 d θ 1 dφ,
F g = 1 2c 0 2π 0 π/2 I( ρ,x ) [ n( ρ )R( ρ )sin2 θ 1 n( ρ )T( ρ )T( ρ )sinα ] r p 2 sin2 θ 1 cosφd θ 1 dφ,
I( ρ,x )= 2P πω ( x ) 2 exp[ 2 ρ 2 ω ( x ) 2 ],
n=1.33547+( 0.02192×[ CaCl 2 ] ),
C t =D 2 C,
C( y,0 )= C o , ω o y ω o ,
C( y,0 )=0, | y |> ω o ,
C( ±W/2 ,t )=0,
S= ( nP / πc )( r p 2 / ω o 2 ) 6πμ r p U ,

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