Abstract

We have modelled the experimental system based on the sub-wavelength aperture probe employed in our previous work for terahertz (THz) surface plasmon wave imaging on a bowtie antenna. For the first time we demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed interpretation of the images mapped by the probe. The very good agreement between numerical and experimental results proves that the physical quantity detected by the probe is the spatial derivative of the electric field normal component. The achieved understanding of the near-field probe response allows now a correct interpretation of the images and the distribution of the electric field to be extracted. We have also carried out the first assessment of the probe invasiveness and found that the pattern of the surface plasmon wave on the antenna is not modified significantly by the proximity of the probe. This makes the experimental system an effective tool for near-field imaging of THz antennas and other metallic structures.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (5)

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic wave propagation close to microstructures studied by time and phase-resolved THz near-field imaging,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 588–593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50(2), 407–423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

Adam, A. J. L.

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, R. W.

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 588–593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bessho, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, A.

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic wave propagation close to microstructures studied by time and phase-resolved THz near-field imaging,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 588–593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, G.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Federici, J.

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Federici, J. F.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, C.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Harel, R.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirosumi, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

Kang, J. H.

Katehi, L. P. B.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueckstein, R.

R. Mueckstein and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging of terahertz surface plasmon waves excited on a gold surface by a focused beam,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3212–3217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, H.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Pala, R. A.

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 588–593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papapolymerou, I.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renaud, C. C.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

Shikata, J.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smythe, E. J.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic wave propagation close to microstructures studied by time and phase-resolved THz near-field imaging,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

West, K.

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynn, J. D.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yook, J.

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 3974 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. West, “Generation of low-frequency components due to phase-amplitude modulation of subcycle far-infrared pulses in near-field diffraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1579 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, R. Harel, M. Lee, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. West, J. D. Wynn, and J. Federici, “Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 252 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

Q. H. Park, “Optical antennas and plasmonics,” Contemp. Phys. 50(2), 407–423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

E. Cubukcu, N. Yu, E. J. Smythe, L. Diehl, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5-THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

K. Yang, G. David, J. Yook, I. Papapolymerou, L. P. B. Katehi, and J. F. Whitaker, “Electrooptic mapping and finite-element modeling of the near-field pattern of a microstrip patch antenna,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48(2), 288–294 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves (3)

M. Walther and A. Bitzer, “Electromagnetic wave propagation close to microstructures studied by time and phase-resolved THz near-field imaging,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1020–1030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, and O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(9), 588–593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic mode mapping of resonant plasmon nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(11), 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

F. Garet and L. Duvillaret, “THz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometric-thick gold layers,” Digest of the 2004 Joint 29th 467-468 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup showing the integrated near-field probe (P), the bow-tie antenna sample (S), and the THz waveguide (W). The inset shows an enlarged antenna section of the probe. (b) Schematic diagram of the bow-tie antenna sample showing the electric field lines forming on the antenna surface when it is illuminated by the THz beam from the substrate side.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Model structure and materials. (b) Plane wave employed as excitation source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The black circles are the samples of the actual signal detected in the laboratory. The waveform depicted as a continuous blue line represents the signal in the simulation arriving at the same detection point. As explained in [8], far away from any interference, the probe detects the time derivative of the transverse incident field (Ey in this work). The instants t1, t2, t3, t4 are the times at which the field was mapped in the laboratory experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the patterns mapped in the laboratory experiment [8] and the patterns obtained through CST simulation and MATLAB post-processing. The experimental images depict the current detected at the output of the photoconductive antenna inside the probe. The numerical images depict the spatial derivative dEz/dy of the electric field z component. Each image covers an area of 460 x 620 µm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the time-domain waveform detected in the laboratory experiment (black circles) on the metal of the antenna at a distance of 175 µm from the centre of the gap and the time-domain waveform of the electric field z component spatial derivative dEz(t)/dy obtained in the simulation (continuous blue line) at the same location (shown in the inset). The comparison is only valid before the instant 7 ps, indicated by the dashed red line; after this instant the reflections from the faces of the substrate reach the antenna and cause interference in the simulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the simulated Ez component on the antenna at the times t1, t2, t3, t4 with and without the probe. The scale in the case without the probe has been saturated to highlight the distribution pattern and allow a comparison.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Properties of the Materials Used in the Model

Tables Icon

Table 2 List of the Geometrical Parameters

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