Abstract

We studied the optical extinction properties of Au nanoshell with two holes by the discrete-dipole approximation method. We found that the extinction spectra of the nanoparticles are sensitive to the angle between the polarization vector of the incident light and either symmetrical axis of the hole on nanoshell and also the sizes of two holes. The nanostructure we proposed provides the additional dimensional angularly selectivity of the optical properties and the plasmon resonances redshift comparing with the nanocup. In addition, the conception of the “two-dimensional” symmetry breaking of the nanoparticle is suggested which can induce the two-dimensional spatial asymmetry of optical properties of nanoparticles.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
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  3. J. Park, A. Estrada, K. Sharp, K. Sang, J. A. Schwartz, D. K. Smith, C. Coleman, J. D. Payne, B. A. Korgel, A. K. Dunn, and J. W. Tunnell, “Two-photon-induced photoluminescence imaging of tumors using near-infrared excited gold nanoshells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1590–1599 (2008).
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  4. A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18(23), 235704 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. T. Draine and P. J. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1491–1499 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18(23), 235704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ali, T. A.

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayala-Orozco, C.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barhoumi, A.

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bikram, M.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, R. K.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brannan, T.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cankurtaran, B.

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charnay, C.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, C.

Cortie, M.

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18(23), 235704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cortie, M. B.

M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, E. S.

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dligatch, S.

G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dorpe, P. V.

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Draine, B. T.

Dunn, A. K.

Estrada, A.

Flatau, P. J.

Ford, M.

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18(23), 235704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ford, M. J.

M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gobin, A. M.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jahan, F.

G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, N. S.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, M. W.

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

Lassiter, B.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lassiter, J. B.

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. D.

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lodewijks, K.

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A. R.

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, G.

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Man, S.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, M. C.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayer, K. M.

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirin, N. A.

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, C. E.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, S.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Payne, J. D.

Qian, J.

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Radloff, C.

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roy, W. V.

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sang, K.

Schatz, G. C.

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J. A.

Sharp, K.

Smith, A. M.

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. K.

Smith, G. B.

G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sobhani, H.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tunnell, J. W.

Van Dorpe, P.

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Roy, W.

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlaminck, I. D.

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. D.

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westcott, S. L.

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, R. E.

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieczorek, L.

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. J.

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. H.

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

N. S. King, Y. Li, C. Ayala-Orozco, T. Brannan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Angle- and spectral-dependent light scattering from plasmonic nanocups,” ACS Nano 5(9), 7254–7262 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, T. A. Ali, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Perforated semishells: far-field directional control and optical frequency magnetic response,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2701–2712 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. Liu, B. Cankurtaran, L. Wieczorek, M. J. Ford, and M. Cortie, “Anisotropic optical properties of semitransparent coatings of gold nanocaps,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(11), 1457–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Nanomedicine (1)

A. R. Lowery, A. M. Gobin, E. S. Day, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, “Immunonanoshells for targeted photothermal ablation of tumor cells,” Int. J. Nanomedicine 1(2), 149–154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Discrete dipole approximation for calculating extinction and Raman intensities for small particles with arbitrary shapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 103(3), 869–875 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Control. Release (1)

M. Bikram, A. M. Gobin, R. E. Whitmire, and J. L. West, “Temperature-sensitive hydrogels with SiO2-Au nanoshells for controlled drug delivery,” J. Control. Release 123(3), 219–227 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. Charnay, A. Lee, S. Man, C. E. Moran, C. Radloff, R. K. Bradley, and N. J. Halas, “Reduced symmetry metallodielectric nanoparticles: chemical synthesis and plasmonic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7327–7333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

J. Ye, P. V. Dorpe, W. V. Roy, K. Lodewijks, I. D. Vlaminck, G. Maes, and G. Borghs, “Fabrication and optical properties of gold semishells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(8), 3110–3115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Qian, W. D. Wang, Y. D. Li, J. J. Xu, and Q. Sun, “Optical extinction properties of perforated gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10349–10355 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. Ye, P. Van Dorpe, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, and G. Maes, “Fabrication, characterization, and optical properties of gold nanobowl submonolayer structures,” Langmuir 25(3), 1822–1827 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (4)

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, “Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 119–124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. Barhoumi, J. B. Lassiter, and N. J. Halas, “Orientation-preserving transfer and directional light scattering from individual light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1838–1844 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, M. W. Knight, N. A. Mirin, and N. J. Halas, “Reshaping the plasmonic properties of an individual nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4326–4332 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Cortie and M. Ford, “A plasmon-induced current loop in gold semi-shells,” Nanotechnology 18(23), 235704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. M. Smith, M. C. Mancini, and S. Nie, “Bioimaging: Second window for invivo imaging,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(11), 710–711 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. B. Cortie, X. Xu, and M. J. Ford, “Effect of composition and packing configuration on the dichroic optical properties of coinage metal nanorods,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(30), 3520–3527 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. L. Westcott, J. B. Jackson, C. Radloff, and N. J. Halas, “Relative contributions to the plasmon line shape of metal nanoshells,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 155431 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renew. Energy (1)

G. B. Smith, S. Dligatch, and F. Jahan, “Angular selective thin film glazing,” Renew. Energy 15(1-4), 183–188 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Mid-sectional view of a silica-gold nanoshell with a hole. (b) Mid-sectional view of a silica-gold nanoshell with two holes. (c) Schematic of the geometry of nanoshell with one hole. (d) Schematic of the geometry of nanoshell with two holes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Extinction efficiency of the nanoshell with a hole (r = 26 nm) at the rotational angle α = 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° along y-axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extinction efficiency of the nanoshell with two holes (r1 = 16 nm, r2 = 26 nm) (a) at the rotational angle α = 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° along y-axis (β = 0°), (b) at the rotational angle β = 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° along x-axis (α = 0°), (c) with the varying wavelength and rotational angle α at β = 0°, (d) with the varying wavelength and rotational angle β at α = 0°,

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extinction efficiency of the nanoshell (a) with two holes of different sizes (r1 = 16 nm, r2 = 10, 16, 22, 26 nm) at the rotational angle α = 0°, and 90° along y-axis (β = 0°) and (b) with two holes of different sizes (r1 = 10 nm, r2 = 10, 16, 22, 26 nm) at the rotational angle β = 0°, and 90° along x-axis (α = 0°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The shifts of extinction peaks of the nanoshell with one hole (black) of different r (r = 10, 16, 22, 26 nm) at α = 0°, and 90°, the nanoshell with two holes (red) of different r2 (r2 = 10, 16, 22, 26 nm, r1 = 16 nm) at α = 0°, and 90° (β = 0°), the nanoshell with two holes (blue) of different r2 (r2 = 10, 16, 22, 26 nm, r1 = 10nm) at β = 0°, and 90° (α = 0°).

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