Abstract

We present a quantitative quasi-analytical model to predict and analyze signals on layered samples measured by infrared scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy. Our model predictions are compared to experimental data and to fully retarded calculations based on a point dipole approximation of the tip. The model is used to study the influence of the tip vibration amplitude and of the tip radius on the near-field contrasts of samples with particularly small variations in the layer thickness. Additionally the influence of a dielectric capping layer on the tip–substrate coupling is analyzed. When inversely applied, our calculation opens the possibility to extract the local layer thickness of thin films or the dielectric functions that allow one to draw conclusions on the material composition, conductivity or crystal structure on the nanoscale.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  43. N. Behr and M. Raschke, “Optical antenna properties of scanning probe tips: Plasmonic light scattering, tip–sample coupling, and near-field enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 3766–3773 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  47. T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical resonance tuning and phase effects in optical near-field interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. López-Ríos, “Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B67, 085409 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2012

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Krutokhvostov, A. A. Govyadinov, J. M. Stiegler, F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Enhanced resolution in subsurface near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express20, 593–600 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

K. Moon, E. Jung, M. Lim, Y. Do, and H. Han, “Quantitative analysis and measurements of near-field interactions in terahertz microscopes,” Opt. Express19, 11539–11544 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitković, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nature Mat.10, 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B83, 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett.10, 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. J. Huber, A. Ziegler, T. Köck, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared nanoscopy of strained semiconductors,” Nature Nanotech.4, 153–157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, J. C. Schotland, R. Hillenbrand, and P. S. Carney, “Nanoscale optical tomography using volume-scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 121108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Govyadinov, G. Y. Panasyuk, and J. C. Schotland, “Phaseless three-dimensional optical nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express17, 2518–2529 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Kopf, J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, C. Grunwald, E. Brüdermann, and M. Havenith, “Chemical imaging of microstructured self-assembled monolayers with nanometer resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 8166–8171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Huber, N. Ocelić, T. Taubner, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale resolved infrared probing of crystal structure and of plasmon–phonon coupling,” Nano Lett.6, 774–778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenband, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenband, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science313, 1595–1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, J. Aizpurua, R. Guckenberger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared imaging of single nanoparticles via strong field enhancement in a scanning nanogap,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 060801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resonant light scattering by near-field-induced phonon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B71, 075410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express13, 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5064–5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical resonance tuning and phase effects in optical near-field interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelić and R. Hillenband, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nature Mat.3, 606–609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes,” J. Microscopy210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip–sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. López-Ríos, “Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B67, 085409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang and C. H. Woo, “Atomic force microscopy-induced electric field in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4053–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature (London)418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Akhremitchev, Y. Sun, L. Stebounova, and G. C. Walker, “Monolayer-sensitive infrared imaging of DNA stripes using apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir18, 5325–5328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy,” Ultra-microscopy71, 341–344 (1998).

F. Demming, J. Jersch, K. Dickmann, and P. I. Geshev, “Calculation of the field enhancement on laser-illuminated scanning probe tips by the boundary element method,” Appl. Phys. B66, 593–598 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1991

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abate, Y.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitković, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenband, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, J. Aizpurua, R. Guckenberger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared imaging of single nanoparticles via strong field enhancement in a scanning nanogap,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 060801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akhremitchev, B. B.

B. B. Akhremitchev, Y. Sun, L. Stebounova, and G. C. Walker, “Monolayer-sensitive infrared imaging of DNA stripes using apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir18, 5325–5328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Algra, R. E.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett.10, 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amarie, S.

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B83, 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apell, S. P.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. López-Ríos, “Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B67, 085409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arsov, Z.

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett.10, 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behr, N.

N. Behr and M. Raschke, “Optical antenna properties of scanning probe tips: Plasmonic light scattering, tip–sample coupling, and near-field enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 3766–3773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Section 8.6.

Brehm, M.

M. Brehm, A. Schliesser, F. Čajko, I. Tsukerman, and F. Keilmann, “Antenna-mediated back-scattering efficiency in infrared near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 11203–11215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenband, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenband, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, “Infrarot-Mikroskopie mit einem Nahfeldmikroskop,” Dissertation, TU München (2006), Chap. 4.

Brüdermann, E.

G. Wollny, E. Brüdermann, Z. Arsov, L. Quaroni, and M. Havenith, “Nanoscale depth resolution in scanning near-field infrared microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 7453–7459 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kopf, J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, C. Grunwald, E. Brüdermann, and M. Havenith, “Chemical imaging of microstructured self-assembled monolayers with nanometer resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 8166–8171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cajko, F.

Carney, P. S.

R. Krutokhvostov, A. A. Govyadinov, J. M. Stiegler, F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Enhanced resolution in subsurface near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express20, 593–600 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, J. C. Schotland, R. Hillenbrand, and P. S. Carney, “Nanoscale optical tomography using volume-scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 121108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Neto, A. H.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuvilin, A.

Cvitkovic, A.

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitković, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, J. Aizpurua, R. Guckenberger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared imaging of single nanoparticles via strong field enhancement in a scanning nanogap,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 060801 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5064–5066 (2004).
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B. B. Akhremitchev, Y. Sun, L. Stebounova, and G. C. Walker, “Monolayer-sensitive infrared imaging of DNA stripes using apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir18, 5325–5328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tauber, M. J.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenband, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenband, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelić, T. Taubner, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale resolved infrared probing of crystal structure and of plasmon–phonon coupling,” Nano Lett.6, 774–778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenband, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science313, 1595–1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express13, 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5064–5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical resonance tuning and phase effects in optical near-field interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes,” J. Microscopy210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature (London)418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thiemens, M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsukerman, I.

Urzhumov, Y.

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenband, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science313, 1595–1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

Walker, G. C.

B. B. Akhremitchev, Y. Sun, L. Stebounova, and G. C. Walker, “Monolayer-sensitive infrared imaging of DNA stripes using apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir18, 5325–5328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang and C. H. Woo, “Atomic force microscopy-induced electric field in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4053–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nature Mat.10, 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Section 8.6.

Wollny, G.

G. Wollny, E. Brüdermann, Z. Arsov, L. Quaroni, and M. Havenith, “Nanoscale depth resolution in scanning near-field infrared microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 7453–7459 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kopf, J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, C. Grunwald, E. Brüdermann, and M. Havenith, “Chemical imaging of microstructured self-assembled monolayers with nanometer resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 8166–8171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woo, C. H.

B. Wang and C. H. Woo, “Atomic force microscopy-induced electric field in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4053–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, A.

A. J. Huber, A. Ziegler, T. Köck, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared nanoscopy of strained semiconductors,” Nature Nanotech.4, 153–157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

J. M. Stiegler, Y. Abate, A. Cvitković, Y. E. Romanyuk, A. J. Huber, S. R. Leone, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy,” ACS Nano5, 6494–6499 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

F. Demming, J. Jersch, K. Dickmann, and P. I. Geshev, “Calculation of the field enhancement on laser-illuminated scanning probe tips by the boundary element method,” Appl. Phys. B66, 593–598 (1998).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Sun, J. C. Schotland, R. Hillenbrand, and P. S. Carney, “Nanoscale optical tomography using volume-scanning near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 121108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nonnenmacher, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Kelvin probe force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.58, 2921–2923 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke and C. Lienau, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Tip–sample coupling in elastic light scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Nanoscale polymer recognition by spectral signature in scattering infrared near-field microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 5064–5066 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Wang and C. H. Woo, “Atomic force microscopy-induced electric field in ferroelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4053–4059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microscopy

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, “Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes,” J. Microscopy210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

I. Kopf, J.-S. Samson, G. Wollny, C. Grunwald, E. Brüdermann, and M. Havenith, “Chemical imaging of microstructured self-assembled monolayers with nanometer resolution,” J. Phys. Chem. C111, 8166–8171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Behr and M. Raschke, “Optical antenna properties of scanning probe tips: Plasmonic light scattering, tip–sample coupling, and near-field enhancement,” J. Phys. Chem. C112, 3766–3773 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

B. B. Akhremitchev, Y. Sun, L. Stebounova, and G. C. Walker, “Monolayer-sensitive infrared imaging of DNA stripes using apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Langmuir18, 5325–5328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene–SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. G. Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett.10, 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenband, and F. Keilmann, “Infrared spectroscopic mapping of single nanoparticles and viruses at nanoscale resolution,” Nano Lett.6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelić, T. Taubner, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale resolved infrared probing of crystal structure and of plasmon–phonon coupling,” Nano Lett.6, 774–778 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanomechanical resonance tuning and phase effects in optical near-field interaction,” Nano Lett.4, 1669–1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light-matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature (London)418, 159–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mat.

N. Ocelić and R. Hillenband, “Subwavelength-scale tailoring of surface phonon polaritons by focused ion-beam implantation,” Nature Mat.3, 606–609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nature Mat.10, 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotech.

A. J. Huber, A. Ziegler, T. Köck, and R. Hillenband, “Infrared nanoscopy of strained semiconductors,” Nature Nanotech.4, 153–157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun.182, 321–328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenband, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express13, 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, and R. Hillenband, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wollny, E. Brüdermann, Z. Arsov, L. Quaroni, and M. Havenith, “Nanoscale depth resolution in scanning near-field infrared microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 7453–7459 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, and R. Hillenbrand, “Material-specific infrared recognition of single sub 10 nm particles by substrate-enhanced scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 7453–7459 (2008).

M. Brehm, A. Schliesser, F. Čajko, I. Tsukerman, and F. Keilmann, “Antenna-mediated back-scattering efficiency in infrared near-field microscopy,” Opt. Express16, 11203–11215 (2008).
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R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express17, 2518–2529 (2009).
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K. Moon, E. Jung, M. Lim, Y. Do, and H. Han, “Quantitative analysis and measurements of near-field interactions in terahertz microscopes,” Opt. Express19, 11539–11544 (2011).
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R. Krutokhvostov, A. A. Govyadinov, J. M. Stiegler, F. Huth, A. Chuvilin, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Enhanced resolution in subsurface near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express20, 593–600 (2012).
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Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, and T. López-Ríos, “Resonance shift effects in apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B67, 085409 (2003).
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S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B83, 045404 (2011).
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J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, and R. Hillenbrand, “Resonant light scattering by near-field-induced phonon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B71, 075410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B85, 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Cvitković, N. Ocelić, J. Aizpurua, R. Guckenberger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared imaging of single nanoparticles via strong field enhancement in a scanning nanogap,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 060801 (2006).
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A. A. Govyadinov, G. Y. Panasyuk, and J. C. Schotland, “Phaseless three-dimensional optical nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103, 213901 (2009).
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Science

T. Taubner, D. Korobkin, Y. Urzhumov, G. Shvets, and R. Hillenband, “Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens,” Science313, 1595–1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning interferometric apertureless microscopy: Optical imaging at 10 angstrom resolution,” Science269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the FDM. A spheroid represents the tip. Its polarization in the external field Ein is approximated by the monopoles Q0 and −Q0 forming the dipole p0. The near-field interaction with the sample is treated electrostatically by introducing virtual image charges −βQ0 and −βQ1 in the sample. In the tip, the near-field induced charges Q1 and −Q1 form the dipole p1. Esc is the propagating field scattered from the system. The bars on the right mark the position of the respective charges and the height H of the tip above the sample. ε1 and ε2 are the dielectric functions of the surrounding medium and the sample, respectively. The tip vibrates at a frequency Ω and an amplitude A.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fresnel reflection coefficient rp depending on the in-plane component of the wave vector q in the regime of evanescent waves for TM polarized light, evaluated for a vacuum wavelength of 10 μm. The curves represent bare silicon (red, solid), bare PMMA (red, dashed), and PMMA-covered silicon with PMMA film thicknesses of 20, 50, and 100 nm. Horizontal arrows mark the respective values of βeff for the tip being in contact with the sample. The values q*ρ−1 and are marked with the vertical gray lines. (b) Effective electrostatic reflection coefficients βeff evaluated for a tip radius of 30 nm depending on the height H of the tip above the sample for the same samples as in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Approach curves for the scattering amplitude on silicon covered with 40 nm PMMA at a tip vibration amplitude of A = 27 nm (left column) and A = 50 nm (right column) and two demodulation orders (upper row: n = 2, lower row: n = 3). The curves are normalized to the signal on bare silicon for H0 = 0. Red line: experimental curve, black solid line: FDM calculation, black dashed line: point dipole approximation [14].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Film thickness variation: Measured dependence of the scattering amplitude on a silicon sample covered by PMMA layers with thicknesses of d = 0, 40, 54, 81, 115 nm for n = 3 and A = 50 nm as approach curves (red curves). Red dots: Signals in contact (H0 = 0). The bars mark the estimated error according to the uncertainty in the determination of H0. Black solid line: FDM calculation of the scattering amplitude in contact; black dotted line: point dipole approximation (PDM) [14]; black dashed lines: FDM calculation of the approach curves (H0 > 0).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Demodulated scattering amplitude S2 on a silicon sample covered by a PMMA layer of thickness d for the tip vibration amplitudes A = 10 nm (black), A = 30 nm (red), and A = 60 nm (black, dashed). (b) Relative contrast change function [Eq. (14)]. The inset is a sketch for the corresponding derivation in the main text.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Demodulated signal S2 on a silicon sample covered by a PMMA layer of the thickness d for the tip radii ρ = 10 nm (black), ρ = 30 nm (red), and ρ = 60 nm (black, dashed). The spheroid length is L = 300 nm in all cases. (b) Relative contrast change function [Eq. (14)].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of resonance curves. The demodulated scattering amplitude at n = 2 and A = 30 nm is shown depending on the real part of the substrate dielectric function. ε2 = 2, Im(ε3) = 1. Solid curves: d = 10 nm (black), d = 30 nm (red); dashed curves: H0 = 10 nm (black), H0 = 30 nm (red); dotted black curve: d = 0, H0 = 0.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q 1 = β ( f 0 Q 0 + f 1 Q 1 ) ,
f 0 , 1 = ( g ρ + 2 H + W 0 , 1 2 L ) ln 4 L ρ + 4 H + 2 W 0 , 1 ln 4 L ρ .
α eff p 1 p 0 + 1 = 1 2 β f 0 1 β f 1 + 1 .
H ( t ) = H 0 + A ( 1 + cos Ω t )
U = Q 4 π ɛ 0 ( 1 r 2 + z 2 + Φ ) .
Φ = 0 A ( k ) e k z J 0 ( k r ) d k ,
A ( k ) = e 2 k z 0 β 12 + β 23 e 2 k d 1 β 21 β 23 e 2 k d ,
β i j = ɛ i ɛ j ɛ i + ɛ j .
Φ | z = 0 = β X z 0 + X ,
Φ ( z ) z | z = 0 = Φ | z = 0 = β X ( z 0 + X ) 2 .
β X = Φ 2 Φ | z = 0 ,
X = Φ Φ | z = 0 z 0 .
f 0 , 1 = ( g ρ + H + X 0 , 1 2 L ) ln 4 L ρ + 2 H + 2 X 0 , 1 ln 4 L ρ ,
β eff r p ( q ¯ ) ,
S n , r : = S n B S n A = S n A + S n | A Δ S n A ,
S n , r 1 | S n S n | .
A ( k ) = e 2 k z 0 β 12 + β A e 2 k ( d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) 1 + β B e 2 k ( d 1 + d 2 + d 3 ) ,
β A = β 12 β 23 β 34 e 2 k ( d 1 + d 3 ) + β 12 β 23 β 45 e 2 k d 1 + β 12 β 34 β 45 e 2 k ( d 1 + d 2 ) + β 23 e 2 k ( d 2 + d 3 ) + β 23 β 34 β 45 e 2 k d 2 + β 34 e 2 k d 3 + β 45
β B = β 12 β 23 e 2 k ( d 2 + d 3 ) + β 12 β 23 β 34 β 45 e 2 k d 2 + β 12 β 34 e 2 k d 3 + β 12 β 45 + β 23 β 34 e 2 k ( d 1 + d 3 ) + β 23 β 45 e 2 k d 1 + β 34 β 45 e 2 k ( d 1 + d 2 ) .
1 1 β 12 β 23 e 2 k d = m = 0 ( β 21 β 23 ) m e 2 m k d ,
0 e k | z | J 0 ( k r ) d k = 1 z 2 + r 2
Φ = β 12 1 2 z 0 z + γ 12 γ 21 m = 1 β 21 m 1 β 23 n 2 z 0 z + 2 m d
R 0 = β 12 Q ,
R m > 0 = γ 21 β 21 m 1 β 23 m γ 12 Q

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