Abstract

We present an organic light emitting diode with a perforated WO3 hole injection layer to improve the light extraction efficiency. The two-dimensionally perforated WO3 layer was fabricated by use of colloidal lithography. The light extraction efficiency was improved due to Bragg scattering of waveguide modes and surface plasmon polaritons, and the operating voltage was also decreased. As a result, the external quantum efficiency and the power efficiency were increased as compared with those of conventional organic light emitting diodes without WO3 layer. The angular dependence of emission characteristics was investigated by measuring radiant intensity profiles for emission angles and azimuthal angles.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Lim, S. S. Oh, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, I. T. Kim, S. H. Han, H. Takezoe, E. H. Choi, G. S. Cho, Y. H. Seo, S. O. Kang, and B. Park, “Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array,” Opt. Express14(14), 6564–6571 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of electroluminescence through a two-dimensional corrugated metal film by grating-induced surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2302–2304 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lim, S. S. Oh, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Cho, I. T. Kim, S. H. Han, H. Takezoe, E. H. Choi, G. S. Cho, Y. H. Seo, S. O. Kang, and B. Park, “Enhanced out-coupling factor of microcavity organic light-emitting devices with irregular microlens array,” Opt. Express14(14), 6564–6571 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of electroluminescence through a two-dimensional corrugated metal film by grating-induced surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Opt. Lett.30(17), 2302–2304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adawi, A. M.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altun, A. O.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Athanassopoulou, N.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bülow, T.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. S.

Cho, S. H.

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D.-G.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

Choi, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Foden, C.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fry, P. W.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, D.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamwi, S.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. H.

Hirasawa, A.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H.-H.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jory, M. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. O.

Kawata, S.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, G.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. T.

Kim, J. C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, K. Y.

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kullock, R.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E.-S.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. N.

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-W.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lidzey, D. G.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

Lu, M.-H.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, I.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsushige, K.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.-C.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. S.

Ohata, H.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Park, B.

Park, H.-D.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qureshi, F.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. H.

Shim, J.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimoji, N.

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sumioka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

Tsuji, T.

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, J. L.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, T.

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasilev, C.

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yahiro, M.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Youn, J. R.

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

J.-H. Jang, M.-C. Oh, T.-H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(12), 123302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, T. Ueno, K. Ishihara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, T. Tsuji, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Reduction of operating voltage in organic light-emitting diode by corrugated photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5769–5771 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, M. Fujita, I. Matsubara, T. Asano, S. Noda, H. Ohata, A. Hirasawa, H. Nakada, and N. Shimoji, “Organic light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals on glass substrate fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(11), 111114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Madigan, M.-H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Improvement of output coupling efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes by backside substrate modification,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(13), 1650–1652 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Sumioka, and T. Tsutsui, “Organic light-emitting device with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(10), 1243–1245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(25), 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Lupton, B. J. Matterson, I. D. W. Samuel, M. J. Jory, and W. L. Barnes, “Bragg scattering from periodically microstructured light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(21), 3340–3342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, J. Huh, G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, S.-H. Cho, Y.-C. Kim, and Y. R. Do, “A high-extraction-efficiency nanopatterned organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(21), 3779–3781 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Meyer, S. Hamwi, T. Bülow, H.-H. Johannes, T. Riedl, and W. Kowalsky, “Highly efficient simplified organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 113506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Lee, J. R. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced extraction efficiency of Y2O3:Eu3+ thin-film phosphors coated with hexagonally close-packed polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(4), 041907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. A. Hobson, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys.96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys.91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys.100(7), 073106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K. Y. Ko, K. N. Lee, Y. K. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Enhanced light extraction from SrGa2S4:Eu2+ film phosphors coated with various sizes of polystyrene nanosphere monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(20), 7594–7598 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater.32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (2)

A. O. Altun, S. Jeon, J. Shim, J.-H. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.-W. Lee, E.-S. Lee, H.-D. Park, J. R. Youn, J.-J. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-W. Kang, “Corrugated organic light emitting diodes for enhanced light extraction,” Org. Electron.11(5), 711–716 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Adawi, R. Kullock, J. L. Turner, C. Vasilev, D. G. Lidzey, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, D. Gibson, E. Smith, C. Foden, M. Roberts, F. Qureshi, and N. Athanassopoulou, “Improving the light extraction efficiency of polymeric light emitting diodes using two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Org. Electron.7(4), 222–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

J. Li, M. Yahiro, K. Ishida, H. Yamada, and K. Matsushige, “Enhanced performance of organic light emitting device by insertion of conducting/insulating WO3 anodic buffer layer,” Synth. Met.151(2), 141–146 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Hexagonal grating period required to extract the waveguide modes for the emission wavelength. The dotted horizontal line represents the grating period of 330 nm, which is selected as the grating period in the experiment. (b) Normalized electric field intensity profile of the waveguide modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphical representation of the fabrication process of OLED with the perforated WO3 layer: (a) self-assembled polystyrene monolayer, (b) non-closely packed self-assembled polystyrene monolayer after the air-plasma etching, (c) WO3 layer deposited on the self-assembled polystyrene monolayer, (d) a perforated WO3 layer, and (e) a structure of the OLED with the perforated WO3 layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of (a) the self-assembled polystyrene monolayer and (b) the perforated WO3 layer on the ITO-coated glass substrate. Inset: FIB-SEM image of the cross-section of the OLED with the perforated WO3 layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Current density (J)-voltage (V) characteristics, (b) current efficiencies in normal emission, (c) external quantum efficiency (EQE), and (d) power efficiency of devices A, B, C and D.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra from devices A and D in normal emission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radiant intensity profiles of (a) device A and (b) device D at all emission (θ) and azimuthal (ϕ) angles. (c) Radiant intensity profiles of devices A and D for the emission angles while the azimuthal angle was fixed; dotted lines indicate the radiation profiles of a Lambertian source.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Structure and Thicknesses of Each Layer of the Fabricated Devices

Equations (3)

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k inplane = k air sinθ
| k guide |( cos ϕ guide sin ϕ guide )+m g1+n g2=| k inplane |( cos ϕ inplane sin ϕ inplane )
g1=( 2π Λ 2π 3 Λ ),g2=( 0 4π 3 Λ )

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