Abstract

We report on the efficiency enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using ZnO micro-walls grown by a hydrothermal method. The formation of ZnO micro-walls at the indium tin oxide (ITO) border on the LED structure is explained by the heterogeneous nucleation effect. The light output power of LEDs with ZnO micro-walls operated at 20 mA was found to increase by approximately 30% compared to conventional LEDs. Moreover, the finding of nearly the same current-voltage characteristics of GaN-based LEDs with and without a ZnO micro-wall shows that the ZnO micro-wall does not influence the electrical properties of the device but only leads to an increase in the light extraction efficiency. From the confocal scanning electroluminescence results, we confirm that ZnO micro-walls enhance the light output power via the photon wave-guiding effect.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. Ambacher, “Growth and application of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.31(20), 2653–2710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface Plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, A. H. Park, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Light outcoupling effect in GaN light-emitting diodes via convex microstructures monolithically fabricated on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9385–9391 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Minami, “Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(4), S35–S44 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. X. Y. Liu, “A new kinetic model for three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(4), 1628 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.-K. Kim, J. W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

S.-K. Kim, J. W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, and C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Minami, “Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(4), S35–S44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface Plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Liu, “A new kinetic model for three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(4), 1628 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

O. Ambacher, “Growth and application of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.31(20), 2653–2710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, “Growth and application of group III-nitrides,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.31(20), 2653–2710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface Plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calestani, D.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carotta, M. C.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. L.

J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, H. L.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Cho, C. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. K.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cong, G. W.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Natale, V.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ee, H.-S.

Fu, L.

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

He, M.

J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, P. A.

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W. G.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Y.

H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, A. H. Park, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Light outcoupling effect in GaN light-emitting diodes via convex microstructures monolithically fabricated on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9385–9391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. S.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, A. H. Park, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Light outcoupling effect in GaN light-emitting diodes via convex microstructures monolithically fabricated on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9385–9391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, C. M.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joon, Y.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, G. Y.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

T. S. Oh, H. Jeong, Y. S. Lee, A. H. Park, T. H. Seo, H. Kim, K. J. Lee, M. S. Jeong, and E. K. Suh, “Light outcoupling effect in GaN light-emitting diodes via convex microstructures monolithically fabricated on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Express19(10), 9385–9391 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-K.

Kim, S.-M.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H.

Kwon, M. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M.-K.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

Lee, C. H.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
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H. Y. Lee, X. Y. Huang, and C. T. Lee, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based roughened LEDs using bias-assisted photoelectrochemical etching method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H707–H709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

Lee, K. J.

Lee, K.-D.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. S.

Li, D. M.

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Y.

J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
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Li, S.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
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X. Y. Liu, “A new kinetic model for three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys.111(4), 1628 (1999).
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P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mackie, D. M.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
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T. Minami, “Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.20(4), S35–S44 (2005).
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H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-T.

Morkoç, H.

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosca, R.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niu, J. B.

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T. S.

Pan, F.

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, A. H.

Park, H.-G.

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-J.

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. Q.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, Z. Y.

J. Y. Li, X. L. Chen, H. Li, M. He, and Z. Y. Qiao, “Fabrication of zinc oxide nanorods,” J. Cryst. Growth233(1-2), 5–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, A. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, G.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, T. H.

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

Sun, C. C.

Sun, X. W.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. B.

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. Y.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. J.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. C.

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, C.

X. W. Sun, S. F. Yu, C. X. Xu, C. Yuen, B. J. Chen, and S. Li, “Room-temperature ultraviolet lasing from zinc oxide microtubes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 10B), L1229–L1231 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zanotti, L.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zappettini, A.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

J. J. Chen, F. Zeng, D. M. Li, J. B. Niu, and F. Pan, “Deposition of high-quality zinc oxide thin films on diamond substrates for high-frequency surface acoustic wave filter applications,” Thin Solid Films485(1-2), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zha, M.

D. Calestani, M. Zha, R. Mosca, A. Zappettini, M. C. Carotta, V. Di Natale, and L. Zanotti, “Growth of ZnO tetrapods for nanostructure-based gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.144(2), 472–478 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. Van Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P. F.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, J.

J. Zhong, H. Chen, G. Saraf, Y. Lu, C. K. Choi, J. J. Song, D. M. Mackie, and H. Shen, “Integrated ZnO nanotips on GaN light emitting diodes for enhanced emission efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(20), 203515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D. B.

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Q. S.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

K. S. Kim, S.-M. Kim, H. Jeong, M. S. Jeong, and G. Y. Jung, “Enhancement of light extraction through the wave-guiding effect of ZnO sub-microrods in InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater.20(7), 1076–1082 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, A. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)13(2), 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater.

P. A. Hu, Y. Q. Liu, L. Fu, X. B. Wang, and D. B. Zhu, “Controllable morphologies of ZnO nanocrystals: nanowire attracted nanosheets, nanocartridges and hexagonal nanotowers,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.80(1), 35–38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. W. Cong, H. Y. Wei, P. F. Zhang, W. Q. Peng, J. J. Wu, X. L. Liu, C. M. Jiao, W. G. Hu, Q. S. Zhu, and Z. G. Wang, “One-step growth of ZnO from film to vertically well-aligned nanorods and the morphology-dependent Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(23), 231903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kim, C. H. Lee, Y. Joon, G. C. Yi, S. S. Kim, and H. L. Cheong, “Controlled selective growth of ZnO nanorod and microrod arrays on Si substrates by a wet chemical method,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 163128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Kim, M.-K. Kwon, S.-J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K.-D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication procedure of ZnO micro-walls on a GaN-based LED. (b) Final structure of a GaN-based LED with ZnO micro-walls.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images of a GaN-based LED with ZnO micro-walls. (b) Cross-sectional and (c) plane view FE-SEM image of the ZnO micro-wall. (d) Formation model of a ZnO micro-wall at the border of the ITO top contact layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Low-resolution transmission electron microscopy (LR-TEM) image of the ZnO micro-wall. The top right and bottom right Insets show the high-resolution TEM (HR-TEM) image and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, respectively. (b) Micro-Raman spectrum of the ZnO micro-wall. (c) The 380-nm wavelength filtered confocal scanning photoluminescence image of the ZnO micro-wall. (d) Local PL spectrum at the ZnO micro-wall region excited by a 355-nm diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Current-voltage (I-V) and (b) light output power-injection current (L-I) characteristics of a GaN-based LED with ZnO micro-walls. (c) Confocal scanning electroluminescence (EL) microscopy image of a GaN-based LED with ZnO micro-walls operated at 1 mA. (d) Local EL spectra measured at points A and B, as marked in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Far-field radiation patterns from a GaN-based LED with and without ZnO micro-walls. (b) Schematic diagram of the photon escape trace in the LED structure.

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