Abstract

We report results of the proof-of-principle tests of a novel non-contact tissue imaging system. The system utilizes a quasi-null source-detector separation approach for time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy, taking advantage of an innovative state-of-the-art fast-gated single photon counting detector. Measurements on phantoms demonstrate the feasibility of the non-contact approach for the detection of optically absorbing perturbations buried up to a few centimeters beneath the surface of a tissue-like turbid medium. The measured depth sensitivity and spatial resolution of the new system are close to the values predicted by Monte Carlo simulations for the inhomogeneous medium and an ideal fast-gated detector, thus proving the feasibility of the non-contact approach for high density diffuse reflectance measurements on tissue. Potential applications of the system are also discussed.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Atsumori, H.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baselli, G.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Becker, W.

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, A. M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghoff, M.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butti, M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerutti, S.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contini, D.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cova, S.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curio, G.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalla Mora, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Bianco, S.

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdmann, R.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funane, T.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gulinatti, A.

Hibst, R.

Kienle, A.

Kiguchi, M.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leistner, S.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Macdonald, R.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackert, B. M.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, D. J.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, M.

Molteni, E.

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mora, A. D.

Obrig, H.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pifferi, A.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quaresima, V.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raitza, O.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rinneberg, H.

Sander, T. H.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankaran, V.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sase, I.

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiyama, A.

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seki, J.

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbrink, J.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R.

Suzuki, A.

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takatsuki, A.

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosi, A.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trahms, L.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Troxler, T.

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

Villringer, A.

Wabnitz, H.

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, H. Obrig, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Time-resolved multidistance near-infrared spectroscopy of the adult head: intracerebral and extracerebral absorption changes from moments of distribution of times of flight of photons,” Appl. Opt. 43(15), 3037–3047 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, A.

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, M.

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagida, T.

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using a time-gated ICCD camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 705–716 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Martelli and G. Zaccanti, “Calibration of scattering and absorption properties of a liquid diffusive medium at NIR wavelengths. CW method,” Opt. Express 15(2), 486–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappa, F.

A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, A. Gulinatti, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon counting technique widens dynamic range and speeds up acquisition time in time-resolved measurements,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10735–10746 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

Zhao, Z.

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Funane, H. Atsumori, A. Suzuki, and M. Kiguchi, “Noncontact brain activity measurement system based on near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 123701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Wolf, M. Ferrari, and V. Quaresima, “Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062104 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sase, A. Takatsuki, J. Seki, T. Yanagida, and A. Seiyama, “Noncontact backscatter-mode near-infrared time-resolved imaging system: Preliminary study for functional brain mapping,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 300–306 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

M. Butti, D. Contini, E. Molteni, M. Caffini, L. Spinelli, G. Baselli, A. M. Bianchi, S. Cerutti, R. Cubeddu, and A. Torricelli, “Effect of prolonged stimulation on cerebral hemodynamic: a time-resolved fNIRS study,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4103–4114 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, “Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(3), 879–896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

L. Spinelli, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, and G. Zaccanti, “Absorption and scattering perturbations in homogeneous and layered diffusive media probed by time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(2), 021919 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

T. H. Sander, A. Liebert, B. M. Mackert, H. Wabnitz, S. Leistner, G. Curio, M. Burghoff, R. Macdonald, and L. Trahms, “DC-magnetoencephalography and time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy combined to study neuronal and vascular brain responses,” Physiol. Meas. 28(6), 651–664 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Wabnitz, M. Möller, A. Liebert, A. Walter, R. Macdonald, H. Obrig, J. Steinbrink, R. Erdmann, and O. Raitza, “A time-domain NIR brain imager applied in functional stimulation experiments,” Proc. SPIE 5859, 58590H (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. Zhao, W. Becker, T. Troxler, and B. Chance, “Flying spot remote sensing of ICG kinetics of undeformed tissues,” Proc. SPIE 5693, 28–33 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the non-contact brain scanning imaging system. Red lines show the incident light pathway, green – the collected light pathway. Black lines represent electrical connections. The inset shows the alignment of the system: the focused spot on the left is the laser light incident point; the larger diffuse spot 1 mm to the right is the detection area. (SC – supercontinuum laser; VA – variable attenuator; PD – photodiode; DG – delay generator; UFP – ultrafast pulser; M – mirror; AOTF – Acousto-Optical Tunable Filter).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DTOFs recorded at different gate delays: black curve – full DTOF; blue, green and red curves – DTOFs recorded at gate delays of 1500 ps, 1750 ps and 2000 ps, respectively. (a) DTOFs as originally recorded, (b) DTOFs rescaled with respect to laser power incident to the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast for X scans (a) and Z scans (b) of the black cylindrical inclusion for six consecutive time windows of 500 ps (columns). Colors represent the various gate delays, with the same assignment as in Fig. 2. The rows in (a) correspond to different Z positions of the inclusion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the experimental data with MC simulations for time-resolved contrasts due to a totally absorbing perturbation in an otherwise homogeneous diffusive medium, for 2 mm source-detector separation. Here are reported Z-scans for TWs at 1000 (left) and 2000 ps (right), for gate delays of 1500 (up, blue line) and 2000 ps (down, red line). MC simulations are represented by black lines.

Equations (1)

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C i ( t g )= N i,0 ( t g ) N i ( t g ) N i,0 ( t g )

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