Abstract

The current popularity of excimer laser refractive surgery suggests a need for continued research and refinements to further improve clinical outcomes. A fundamental limitation of current clinical systems is the lack of real-time feedback specifically addressing the laser-tissue interactions as directly related to laser ablation rates. This paper reports data to assess the feasibility of a novel approach that holds promise as a real-time feedback scheme based on comparison of the incident and reflected laser pulse waveforms, as quantified using a cross-correlation algorithm. The approach is evaluated for ablation of bovine cornea over a range of clinically relevant laser fluences. A linear relationship was observed between several cross-correlation metrics and the directly measured corneal ablation rate, yielding an average RMS predictive error of 3.9% using a 25-shot average reflected waveform. Assessment of the cross-correlation approach for single-shot ablation data revealed a brief transient corresponding to the first few laser pulses, which is attributed to a slight hydration gradient near the surface of the de-epithelialized cornea. Clinical refractive data are necessary to assess the precision of this approach for actual refractive surgery.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. J. Kugler and M. X. Wang, “Lasers in refractive surgery: history, present, and future,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F1–F9 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, C. Ortiz, and R. G. Anera, “Testing a model for excimer laser-ablation rates on corneal shape after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1789–1791 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez Del Barco, E. Hita, and F. Pérez-Ocón, “Correction factor for ablation algorithms used in corneal refractive surgery with gaussian-profile beams,” Opt. Express 13(1), 336–343 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Dorronsoro, L. Remon, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Experimental evaluation of optimized ablation patterns for laser refractive surgery,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15292–15307 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(2), 265–277 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3386–3391 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. R. Jiménez, F. Rodríguez-Marín, R. G. Anera, and L. Jiménez Del Barco, “Deviations of Lambert-Beer’s law affect corneal refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5411–5417 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  21. P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  22. M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  25. M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
    [PubMed]

2010

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Kugler and M. X. Wang, “Lasers in refractive surgery: history, present, and future,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F1–F9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, C. Ortiz, and R. G. Anera, “Testing a model for excimer laser-ablation rates on corneal shape after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1789–1791 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2004

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

Auffarth, G. U.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bains, H. S.

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

Binder, P. S.

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bor, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J. J.

Dickrell, P. L.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donitzky, C.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorronsoro, C.

Dougherty, P. J.

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Edelhauser, H. F.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, D.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltham, M. H.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B. T.

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(2), 265–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, G. W.

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Fust, A.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, M. H.

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, D. W.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(2), 265–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

Holzer, M. P.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopp, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, J. R.

Jiménez Del Barco, L.

Khoramnia, R.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobuch, K. A.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kugler, L. J.

Lohmann, C. P.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney, R. K.

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Marton, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Masiello, K. A.

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

Mohay, J.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. B. T.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J. E.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naroo, S. A.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, C.

Pérez-Ocón, F.

Pettit, G. H.

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Racz, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ratkay, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Remon, L.

Reynolds, A.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Marín, F.

Schmack, I.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, S.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shanyfelt, L. M.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapleton, F.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, G. L.

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suveges, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, G.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Mohrenfels, C. W.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. X.

Weiblinger, R. P.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellish, K. L.

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, R.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuellner, C.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.)

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Refract. Surg.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration: EL: excimer laser; QW: quartz wedge; EM: excimer mirror; ND: neutral density filter; IF: interference filter; PD: photodetector; PM: pierced mirror; BE: bovine eye; FL: focusing lens; DO: digital oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example incident and reflected waveforms (a) and the resulting cross-correlation function (b). Data correspond to actual waveforms recorded from bovine cornea.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the initial slope (a) and the decay slope (b) of the cross-correlation function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ablation rate vs. laser pulse energy for bovine eye ablation experiments. The two circled data points were considered outliers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial slope (a), decay slope (b), and ratio of initial slope to decay slope (c) of cross-correlation function vs. bovine eye ablation rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-correlation decay slopes for a sequence of 25 ablating laser pulses at a single ablation site on a bovine eye.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( 0 ) I ( τ ) = 1 N j = 1 N I j I j + n ,
R ( 0 ) I ( τ ) = 1 I ( 0 ) I ( 0 ) j = 1 N R j I j + n .

Metrics