Abstract

The current popularity of excimer laser refractive surgery suggests a need for continued research and refinements to further improve clinical outcomes. A fundamental limitation of current clinical systems is the lack of real-time feedback specifically addressing the laser-tissue interactions as directly related to laser ablation rates. This paper reports data to assess the feasibility of a novel approach that holds promise as a real-time feedback scheme based on comparison of the incident and reflected laser pulse waveforms, as quantified using a cross-correlation algorithm. The approach is evaluated for ablation of bovine cornea over a range of clinically relevant laser fluences. A linear relationship was observed between several cross-correlation metrics and the directly measured corneal ablation rate, yielding an average RMS predictive error of 3.9% using a 25-shot average reflected waveform. Assessment of the cross-correlation approach for single-shot ablation data revealed a brief transient corresponding to the first few laser pulses, which is attributed to a slight hydration gradient near the surface of the de-epithelialized cornea. Clinical refractive data are necessary to assess the precision of this approach for actual refractive surgery.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  17. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
    [PubMed]
  21. P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  22. M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  25. M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
    [PubMed]

2010 (6)

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, J. J. Castro, C. Ortiz, and R. G. Anera, “Testing a model for excimer laser-ablation rates on corneal shape after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1789–1791 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Kugler and M. X. Wang, “Lasers in refractive surgery: history, present, and future,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F1–F9 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

Auffarth, G. U.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bains, H. S.

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

Binder, P. S.

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Bor, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Castro, J. J.

Dickrell, P. L.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donitzky, C.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorronsoro, C.

Dougherty, P. J.

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Edelhauser, H. F.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, D.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feltham, M. H.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B. T.

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(2), 265–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flanagan, G. W.

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Fust, A.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, M. H.

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, D. W.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(2), 265–277 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Measurement of small-signal absorption coefficient and absorption cross section of collagen for 193-nm excimer laser light and the role of collagen in tissue ablation,” Appl. Opt. 43(29), 5443–5451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hita, E.

Holzer, M. P.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopp, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiménez, J. R.

Jiménez Del Barco, L.

Khoramnia, R.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobuch, K. A.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kugler, L. J.

Lohmann, C. P.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney, R. K.

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Marcos, S.

Marton, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Masiello, K. A.

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

Mohay, J.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. B. T.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J. E.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naroo, S. A.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortiz, C.

Pérez-Ocón, F.

Pettit, G. H.

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Corneal-tissue absorption coefficients for 193- and 213-nm ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Opt. 35(19), 3386–3391 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Racz, B.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ratkay, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Remon, L.

Reynolds, A.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Marín, F.

Schmack, I.

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, S.

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shanyfelt, L. M.

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapleton, F.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutton, G. L.

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suveges, I.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Szabo, G.

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Mohrenfels, C. W.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. X.

Weiblinger, R. P.

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Dynamic optical properties of collagen-based tissue during ArF excimer laser ablation,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 488–493 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wellish, K. L.

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, R.

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuellner, C.

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. J. Dougherty, K. L. Wellish, and R. K. Maloney, “Excimer laser ablation rate and corneal hydration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 118(2), 169–176 (1994).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, “Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues,” Chem. Rev. 103(2), 577–644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. (3)

G. L. Sutton and P. Kim, “Laser in situ keratomileusis in 2010 - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 192–210 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reynolds, J. E. Moore, S. A. Naroo, C. B. T. Moore, and S. Shah, “Excimer laser surface ablation - a review,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 38(2), 168–182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Feltham, F. Stapleton, and F. Stapleton, “The effect of water content on the 193 nm excimer laser ablation,” Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 30(2), 99–103 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea (1)

B. T. Fisher, K. A. Masiello, M. H. Goldstein, and D. W. Hahn, “Assessment of transient changes in corneal hydration using confocal Raman spectroscopy,” Cornea 22(4), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eye (Lond.) (1)

M. H. Feltham, R. Wong, R. Wolfe, and F. Stapleton, “Variables affecting refractive outcome following LASIK for myopia,” Eye (Lond.) 22(9), 1117–1123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

R. Khoramnia, C. P. Lohmann, C. Wuellner, K. A. Kobuch, C. Donitzky, and C. W. von Mohrenfels, “Effect of 3 excimer laser ablation frequencies (200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz) on the cornea using a 1000 Hz scanning-spot excimer laser,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 36(8), 1385–1391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

P. J. Dougherty and H. S. Bains, “A retrospective comparison of LASIK outcomes for myopia and myopic astigmatism with conventional NIDEK versus wavefront-guided VISX and Alcon platforms,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(9), 891–896 (2008).
[PubMed]

I. Schmack, G. U. Auffarth, D. Epstein, and M. P. Holzer, “Refractive surgery trends and practice style changes in Germany over a 3-year period,” J. Refract. Surg. 26(3), 202–208 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Flanagan and P. S. Binder, “The theoretical vs. measured laser resection for laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Refract. Surg. 21(1), 18–27 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (3)

L. M. Shanyfelt, P. L. Dickrell, H. F. Edelhauser, and D. W. Hahn, “Effects of laser repetition rate on corneal tissue ablation for 193-nm excimer laser light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 483–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit and M. N. Ediger, “Pump/probe transmission measurements of corneal tissue during excimer laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13(3), 363–367 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser corneal ablation: absence of a significant “incubation” effect,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(5), 411–418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging (1)

B. T. Fisher and D. W. Hahn, “Determination of excimer laser ablation rates of corneal tissue using wax impressions of ablation craters and white-light interferometry,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 35(1), 41–51 (2004).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

G. H. Pettit, M. N. Ediger, and R. P. Weiblinger, “Excimer laser ablation of the cornea,” Opt. Eng. 34(3), 661–667 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bor, B. Hopp, B. Racz, G. Szabo, Z. Marton, I. Ratkay, J. Mohay, I. Suveges, and A. Fust, “Physical problems of excimer laser cornea ablation,” Opt. Eng. 32(10), 2481–2486 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration: EL: excimer laser; QW: quartz wedge; EM: excimer mirror; ND: neutral density filter; IF: interference filter; PD: photodetector; PM: pierced mirror; BE: bovine eye; FL: focusing lens; DO: digital oscilloscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example incident and reflected waveforms (a) and the resulting cross-correlation function (b). Data correspond to actual waveforms recorded from bovine cornea.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of the initial slope (a) and the decay slope (b) of the cross-correlation function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ablation rate vs. laser pulse energy for bovine eye ablation experiments. The two circled data points were considered outliers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Initial slope (a), decay slope (b), and ratio of initial slope to decay slope (c) of cross-correlation function vs. bovine eye ablation rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-correlation decay slopes for a sequence of 25 ablating laser pulses at a single ablation site on a bovine eye.

Equations (2)

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I ( 0 ) I ( τ ) = 1 N j = 1 N I j I j + n ,
R ( 0 ) I ( τ ) = 1 I ( 0 ) I ( 0 ) j = 1 N R j I j + n .

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