Abstract

Breath analysis is an attractive field of research, due to its high potential for non-invasive medical diagnostics. Among others, laser-based absorption spectroscopy is an excellent method for the detection of gases in exhaled breath, because it can combine a high sensitivity with a good selectivity, and a high temporal resolution. Here, we use a fast-scanning continuous wave, singly-resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (wavelength range between 3 and 4 μm, linewidth 40 MHz, output power > 1 W, scanning speed 100 THz/s) with Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy for rapid and sensitive trace gas detection. Real-time, low- ppbv detection of ethane is demonstrated in exhaled human breath during free exhalations. Also, simultaneous, real-time multi-component gas detection of ethane, methane and water was performed in exhaled breath using a wide spectral coverage over 17 cm−1 in 1 second. Furthermore, real-time detection of acetone, a molecule with a wide absorption spectrum, was shown in exhaled breath, with a sub-second time resolution (0.4 s).

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9230–9237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. N. Rao and A. Karpf, “External cavity tunable quantum cascade lasers and their applications to trace gas monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A100–A115 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4904–4910 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive near-infrared integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique for detection of CO at 1.57 μm: new sensitivity limits for absorption measurements in passive optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9221–9229 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(12), 1452–1461 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

B. J. Orr and Y. He, “Rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 512(1-3), 1–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Rao and A. Karpf, “External cavity tunable quantum cascade lasers and their applications to trace gas monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 50(4), A100–A115 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Engel, W. S. Drisdell, F. N. Keutsch, E. J. Moyer, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive near-infrared integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique for detection of CO at 1.57 μm: new sensitivity limits for absorption measurements in passive optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9221–9229 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9230–9237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Miekisch, J. K. Schubert, and G. F. E. Noeldge-Schomburg, “Diagnostic potential of breath analysis--focus on volatile organic compounds,” Clin. Chim. Acta 347(1-2), 25–39 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Sharpe, T. J. Johnson, R. L. Sams, P. M. Chu, G. C. Rhoderick, and P. A. Johnson, “Gas-phase databases for quantitative infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58(12), 1452–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Paul, L. Lapson, and J. G. Anderson, “Ultrasensitive absorption spectroscopy with a high-finesse optical cavity and off-axis alignment,” Appl. Opt. 40(27), 4904–4910 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. G.

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amann, A.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. G.

Arslanov, D. D.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artlich, A.

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bell, G.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhiladvala, M.

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buszewski, B.

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chilese, F. C.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. M.

Clerici, C.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cristescu, S. M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crosson, E. R.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, R. F.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahnke, H.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Doty, J. H.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drisdell, W. S.

Engel, G. S.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ganz, A. M.

Glasser, J.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gonthiez, T.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Groot, T. T.

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Groß, P.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, L. E.

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halmer, D.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F.

S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harren, F. J. M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arslanov, S. M. Cristescu, and F. J. M. Harren, “Optical parametric oscillator based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for rapid chemical sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3300–3302 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

B. J. Orr and Y. He, “Rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 512(1-3), 1–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hering, P.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

Hiang, P. C.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hinterhuber, H.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, P.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, W.

Johnson, P. A.

Johnson, T. J.

Jónsson, B.

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kachanov, A. A.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karpf, A.

Kesy, M.

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keutsch, F. N.

King, J.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

Kleine, D.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koc, H.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosterev, A. A.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kupferthaler, A.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L.

Lee, C. J.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ligor, T.

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, I. D.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lönnqvist, P. A.

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manne, J.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
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Meijer, H. A. J.

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miekisch, W.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Miekisch, J. K. Schubert, and G. F. E. Noeldge-Schomburg, “Diagnostic potential of breath analysis--focus on volatile organic compounds,” Clin. Chim. Acta 347(1-2), 25–39 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Milton, D. K.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, E. J.

Murtz, M.

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

Mürtz, M.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
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Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngai, A. K. Y.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
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Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Noeldge-Schomburg, G. F. E.

W. Miekisch, J. K. Schubert, and G. F. E. Noeldge-Schomburg, “Diagnostic potential of breath analysis--focus on volatile organic compounds,” Clin. Chim. Acta 347(1-2), 25–39 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Keefe, A.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Orr, B. J.

B. J. Orr and Y. He, “Rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 512(1-3), 1–20 (2011).
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Owano, T. G.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paldus, B. A.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Paul, J. B.

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Persijn, S.

S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S. T.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Provencal, R. A.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, G. N.

Rhoderick, G. C.

Ricci, K. N.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richman, B. A.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, D. I.

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sahay, P.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sama, S. R.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sams, R. L.

Schubert, J.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, J. K.

W. Miekisch, J. K. Schubert, and G. F. E. Noeldge-Schomburg, “Diagnostic potential of breath analysis--focus on volatile organic compounds,” Clin. Chim. Acta 347(1-2), 25–39 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, S. W.

Shorter, J. H.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, M. L.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spence, T. G.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spunei, M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, O.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

te Lintel Hekkert, S.

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teschl, G.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teschl, S.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thelen, S.

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P. S.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

Thurston, M.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Todd, M. W.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tran, V. H.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

Unterkofler, K.

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Bodegom, P. M.

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, A.

S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Basum, G.

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yates, D.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zahniser, M. S.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zare, R. N.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

E. R. Crosson, K. N. Ricci, B. A. Richman, F. C. Chilese, T. G. Owano, R. A. Provencal, M. W. Todd, J. Glasser, A. A. Kachanov, B. A. Paldus, T. G. Spence, and R. N. Zare, “Stable isotope ratios using cavity ring-down spectroscopy: determination of 13C/12C for carbon dioxide in human breath,” Anal. Chem. 74(9), 2003–2007 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, and A. O'Keefe, “Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of NO levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 81(5), 705–710 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, A. K. Y. Ngai, S. M. Cristescu, I. D. Lindsay, S. T. Persijn, K. J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave optical parametric oscillator-based wavelength modulation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 223–228 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, I. D. Lindsay, A. A. Kosterev, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, S. M. Cristescu, F. K. Tittel, K.-J. Boller, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous wave optical parametric oscillator for quartz-enhanced photoacoustic trace gas sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 89(1), 123–128 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, S. te Lintel Hekkert, and F. J. M. Harren, “Laser-based systems for trace gas detection in life sciences,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 343–349 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Spagnolo, A. A. Kosterev, L. Dong, R. Lewicki, and F. K. Tittel, “NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 125–130 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Dahnke, D. Kleine, P. Hering, and M. Murtz, “Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 971–975 (2001).

D. Halmer, S. Thelen, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Online monitoring of ethane traces in exhaled breath with a difference frequency generation spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 437–443 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Persijn, F. Harren, and A. van der Veen, “Quantitative gas measurements using a versatile OPO-based cavity ringdown spectrometer and the comparison with spectroscopic databases,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 383–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y. Ngai, S. T. Persijn, G. von Basum, and F. J. M. Harren, “Automatically tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy and sensitive trace-gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 173–180 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Biogeochemistry

T. T. Groot, P. M. van Bodegom, F. J. M. Harren, and H. A. J. Meijer, “Quantification of methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere 13C-labelled methane,” Biogeochemistry 64(3), 355–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Neonate

A. Artlich, B. Jónsson, M. Bhiladvala, P. A. Lönnqvist, and L. E. Gustafsson, “Single breath analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in the newborn,” Biol. Neonate 79(1), 21–26 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Chromatogr.

B. Buszewski, M. Kesy, T. Ligor, and A. Amann, “Human exhaled air analytics: biomarkers of diseases,” Biomed. Chromatogr. 21(6), 553–566 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

B. J. Orr and Y. He, “Rapidly swept continuous-wave cavity-ringdown spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 512(1-3), 1–20 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chim. Acta

W. Miekisch, J. K. Schubert, and G. F. E. Noeldge-Schomburg, “Diagnostic potential of breath analysis--focus on volatile organic compounds,” Clin. Chim. Acta 347(1-2), 25–39 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J.

V. H. Tran, P. C. Hiang, M. Thurston, P. Jackson, C. Lewis, D. Yates, G. Bell, and P. S. Thomas, “Breath analysis of lung cancer patients using an electronic nose detection system,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(9), 1514–1518 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Breath Res.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. King, A. Kupferthaler, K. Unterkofler, H. Koc, S. Teschl, G. Teschl, W. Miekisch, J. Schubert, H. Hinterhuber, and A. Amann, “Isoprene and acetone concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer,” J. Breath Res. 3(2), 027006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

R. Lewicki, J. H. Doty, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, and G. Wysocki, “Ultrasensitive detection of nitric oxide at 5.33 μm by using external cavity quantum cascade laser-based Faraday rotation spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(31), 12587–12592 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel Switzerland)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. H. Risby, “Volatile organic compounds as markers in normal and diseased states,” in NATO ASI Series, Disease markers in exhaled breath: basic mechanisms and clinical applications, N. Marczin and M. H. Yacoub, eds. (IOS, 2002), pp.113–122.

G. Berden and R. Engeln, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy: Techniques and Applications (Wiley, 2009).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the Optical Parametric Oscillator pumped by a fiber amplified DBR laser incorporated with ICOS setup. DBR- Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser, F- double clad Yb-doped fiber, FP- fiber pump diode laser bar, PP-MgO-LN- MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, E- intra-cavity etalon, ICOS cell- integrated cavity output spectroscopy cell, PD- photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the real-time breath sampling. OPO- Optical Parametric Oscillator pumped by a fiber amplified diode laser, Vacuum pump- capacity 230 ml/s (Edwards, model ESDP 30), ICOS cell- Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy cell, Mouthpiece- mouthpiece with a two-way non-rebreathing valve in T-shape configuration (Hans Rudolph inc.), Detector- HgCdZnTe photodetector (VIGO Systems PDI-2TE-4).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated spectra at a pressure of 200 mbar based on HITRAN 2008 database [17] for: (Panel a) 2% water (black solid line) and 1 ppbv ethane (blue dotted line) in the wavelength range 2970-3005 cm−1; (Panel b) 2% water (black solid line, left vertical scale), 1 ppbv ethane (blue dotted line, left vertical scale), 1.7 ppmv methane (green dashed line, left vertical scale) and 5% carbon dioxide (red dot-dashed line, right vertical scale) in the wavelength range 2996.4-2997.6 cm−1. Figure insertion shows etalon fringe pattern with free spectral range of 10 GHz for the fine wavelength tracking during long-term measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Concentration dynamics of ethane during free exhalation in multiple breaths (black solid line, left vertical scale, measured with OPO based OA-ICOS) and carbon dioxide (red dotted line, right vertical scale, measured with capnograph (Capnomac Ultima, Datex Ohmeda): (Panel 4a) non-smoking subject, (Panel 4b) smoking subject half an hour after a cigarette was smoked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Long-term measurements of ethane, exhaled by a smoking subject. Every dot corresponds to a concentration in a single, free exhalation. The blue solid line is an exponential fit of the experimental data. Dashed line at the bottom of the figure shows the level of ethane in air during measurements. Zero time corresponds to the moment when the last cigarette was smoked.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated spectra for water 2% (black solid line), ethane 1 ppbv (blue dotted line) and methane 1.7 ppmv (green dashed line) in the wavelength range between 2996.7 and 2997.9 cm−1 at a pressure of 200 mbar.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real-time multicomponent detection of water (black solid line), methane (green dashed line), carbon dioxide (red dash-dotted line) and ethane (blue dotted line) during free exhalation for three different persons: The first person (Panel 7a) shows elevated levels for both methane and ethane, while the second person (Panel 7b) shows only elevated level of methane, and person three (Panel 7c) shows neither elevated levels for methane nor ethane.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Panel a) Simulated spectra for 1% water (black solid line) and 2 ppmv methane (green dashed line) in the wavelength range between 2947 and 2964 cm−1. (Panel b) A 17 cm−1 long recorded spectrum of air in 1 s. The spectrum consists of eight mode-hop-free regions of about 2 cm−1 width. Each of eight mode-hop-free regions represents the result of 128 averages at a 1-kHz scanning rate and corresponds to certain current offsets for the Bragg and phase sections of the DBR laser. The recorded spectrum is found to be also in good agreement with the simulated spectrum shown on Fig. 8(a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated spectra for 2% water (black solid line), 1 ppmv acetone (blue dotted line) and 1.7 ppmv methane (green dashed line) in the 2966-2974 cm−1 wavelength range for 50 mbar pressure (Panel a) and 500 mbar pressure (Panel b).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Real-time measurements of acetone in exhaled human breath. Panel a: Upper blue line indicates a spectrum of lab air, the lower, red line shows exhaled human breath. Panel b: Black line represents the result of subtraction of both lines from panel a. The red curve is the fit with a Voigt profile of the spectrum.

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