Abstract

Raman spectroscopy is a minimally-invasive optical technique with great potential for in vivo cancer detection and disease diagnosis. However, there is no systematic study of the Raman spectra from different organs to date. We measured and characterized the Raman spectra eighteen naïve mouse organs in a broad frequency range of 700 to 3100 cm−1. The peaks of generic proteins and lipids appeared in Raman spectra of all organs. Some organs like bone, teeth, brain and lung had unique Raman peaks. The autofluorescence was strong in liver, spleen, heart, and kidney. These results suggest that organ specific Raman probe design and specific data processing strategies are required in order to get the most useful information.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  46. I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (1)

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Aydin, M. Kahraman, E. R. Kiliç, and M. Culha, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rat tissues,” Appl. Spectrosc. 63(6), 662–668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (10)

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Seballos, J. Z. Zhang, and R. Sutphen, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 383(5), 763–767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85(1), 572–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

P. R. Carey, “Raman spectroscopy, the sleeping giant in structural biology, awakes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(38), 26625–26628 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. J. Kline and P. J. Treado, “Raman Chemical Imaging of Breast Tissue,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2–3), 119–124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adsay, V.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrade, P. O.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auner, G. W.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, O. M.

Baek, S.-J.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaven, R. B.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Bensalah, K.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billheimer, D. D.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitar, R. A.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruno, P. M.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, A.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carden, A.

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carey, P. R.

P. R. Carey, “Raman spectroscopy, the sleeping giant in structural biology, awakes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(38), 26625–26628 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caspers, P. J.

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85(1), 572–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chavantes, M. C.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, W.-T.

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, D. H.

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cromer, R.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crow, P.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culha, M.

Dai, H.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Crevoisier, R.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Gelder, J.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Gussem, K.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. L.

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donfack, P.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Downes, A.

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, C.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elfick, A.

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, D. L.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

English, J.

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Farmer, J. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faurskov Nielsen, O.

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernanades, D. J.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleureau, J.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, C. J.

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, Y.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gniadecka, M.

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, C.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillé, F.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, D. P.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hench, L. L.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Santana, A.

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heule, F.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, K. Y.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, N.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, N.

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchings, J.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ihara, K.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, T.

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jyothi Lakshmi, R.

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahraman, M.

Kanter, E. M.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kartha, V. B.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kast, R. E.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, M. D.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kendall, C.

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, C. A.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiliç, E. R.

Klein, M. D.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kline, N. J.

N. J. Kline and P. J. Treado, “Raman Chemical Imaging of Breast Tissue,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2–3), 119–124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kohda, E.

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, D. H.

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koljenovic, S.

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, C.-R.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, T.-W.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbelik, M.

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krafft, C.

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, C. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kros, J. M.

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurien, J.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavastre, O.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. A.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-Y.

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindsay, C.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.-N.

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M.-T.

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85(1), 572–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maheedhar, K.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Malini, R.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manfait, M.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. A.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinho, H.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Materny, A.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, G.

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCreery, R. L.

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

McMahon, G.

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Min, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moens, L.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, M. D.

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouras, R.

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murali Krishna, C.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, R.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, V. M.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neudert, L.

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, M. H. A.

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nijssen, A.

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notingher, I.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohguro, H.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohno, N.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohno, S.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacheco, M. T. T.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pai, K. M.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandya, A. K.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasqualucci, C. A. G.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patard, J.-J.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, E.

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ping, J.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, R. N.

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulik, J.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proffitt, E.

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puppels, G. J.

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85(1), 572–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R Solomon, J. G.

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabah, R.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajachar, R. M.

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, L.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redd, D. C. B.

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rioux-Leclercq, N.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, D.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, S.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzer, R.

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santo, A. M. E.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkar, F. H.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathaiah, S.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scepanovic, O. R.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schut, T. B.

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seballos, L.

L. Seballos, J. Z. Zhang, and R. Sutphen, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 383(5), 763–767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senhadji, L.

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serhatkulu, G. K.

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sha, M. Y.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, K. E.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, A.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, N.

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shetty, G.

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Short, K. W.

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Short, M. A.

Silveira, L.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simat, T.

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sockalingum, G. D.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, N.

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sutphen, R.

L. Seballos, J. Z. Zhang, and R. Sutphen, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 383(5), 763–767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teh, M.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teh, S. K.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terada, N.

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terner, J.

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thakur, J. S.

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timlin, J. A.

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres Filho, I. P.

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treado, P. J.

N. J. Kline and P. J. Treado, “Raman Chemical Imaging of Breast Tissue,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2–3), 119–124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uff, J. S.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullas, G.

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uma Devi, P.

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vadhiraja, B. M.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenabeele, P.

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishna, K.

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vidyasagar, M. S.

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincent, A.

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Z.

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ward, K. R.

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Q.

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wright, M. P.

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wulf, H. C.

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, W.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yassoyama, K.

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yavorskyy, A.

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeoh, K. G.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zângaro, R. A.

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Short, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. Zhao, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Development and preliminary results of an endoscopic Raman probe for potential in vivo diagnosis of lung cancers,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 711–713 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Automated autofluorescence background subtraction algorithm for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(11), 1225–1232 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

Zhang, B.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

L. Seballos, J. Z. Zhang, and R. Sutphen, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 383(5), 763–767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, M. H.

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zheng, W.

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zwerdling, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (2)

P. O. Andrade, R. A. Bitar, K. Yassoyama, H. Martinho, A. M. E. Santo, P. M. Bruno, and A. A. Martin, “Study of normal colorectal tissue by FT-Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387(5), 1643–1648 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Seballos, J. Z. Zhang, and R. Sutphen, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 383(5), 763–767 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

C. J. Frank, R. L. McCreery, and D. C. B. Redd, “Raman spectroscopy of normal and diseased human breast tissues,” Anal. Chem. 67(5), 777–783 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koljenović, T. B. Schut, A. Vincent, J. M. Kros, and G. J. Puppels, “Detection of meningioma in dura mater by Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(24), 7958–7965 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Timlin, A. Carden, M. D. Morris, R. M. Rajachar, and D. H. Kohn, “Raman spectroscopic imaging markers for fatigue-related microdamage in bovine bone,” Anal. Chem. 72(10), 2229–2236 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

A. Yavorskyy, A. Hernandez-Santana, G. McCarthy, and G. McMahon, “Detection of calcium phosphate crystals in the joint fluid of patients with osteoarthritis - analytical approaches and challenges,” Analyst (Lond.) 133(3), 302–318 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Biophys. J. (3)

P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, “Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,” Biophys. J. 85(1), 572–580 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Short, S. Carpenter, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, “Raman spectroscopy detects biochemical changes due to proliferation in mammalian cell cultures,” Biophys. J. 88(6), 4274–4288 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biopolymers (2)

R. E. Kast, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, A. K. Pandya, H. Dai, J. S. Thakur, V. M. Naik, R. Naik, M. D. Klein, G. W. Auner, and R. Rabah, “Raman spectroscopy can differentiate malignant tumors from normal breast tissue and detect early neoplastic changes in a mouse model,” Biopolymers 89(3), 235–241 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Malini, K. Venkatakrishna, J. Kurien, K. M. Pai, L. Rao, V. B. Kartha, and C. M. Krishna, “Discrimination of normal, inflammatory, premalignant, and malignant oral tissue: a Raman spectroscopy study,” Biopolymers 81(3), 179–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (3)

S. K. Teh, W. Zheng, K. Y. Ho, M. Teh, K. G. Yeoh, and Z. Huang, “Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue,” Br. J. Cancer 98(2), 457–465 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Crow, N. Stone, C. A. Kendall, J. S. Uff, J. A. Farmer, H. Barr, and M. P. Wright, “The use of Raman spectroscopy to identify and grade prostatic adenocarcinoma in vitro,” Br. J. Cancer 89(1), 106–108 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shetty, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, N. Stone, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy: elucidation of biochemical changes in carcinogenesis of oesophagus,” Br. J. Cancer 94(10), 1460–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calcif. Tissue Int. (1)

A. Carden, R. M. Rajachar, M. D. Morris, and D. H. Kohn, “Ultrastructural changes accompanying the mechanical deformation of bone tissue: a Raman imaging study,” Calcif. Tissue Int. 72(2), 166–175 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

M. D. Keller, E. M. Kanter, C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, J. Hutchings, D. L. Ellis, R. B. Beaven, N. Stone, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Detecting temporal and spatial effects of epithelial cancers with Raman spectroscopy,” Dis. Markers 25(6), 323–337 (2008).
[PubMed]

Eur. Urol. (1)

K. Bensalah, J. Fleureau, D. Rolland, O. Lavastre, N. Rioux-Leclercq, F. Guillé, J.-J. Patard, L. Senhadji, and R. de Crevoisier, “Raman spectroscopy: a novel experimental approach to evaluating renal tumours,” Eur. Urol. 58(4), 602–608 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

N. Stone, C. Kendall, J. Smith, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Raman spectroscopy for identification of epithelial cancers,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 141–157, discussion 169–183 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, S. Lam, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of lung cancer,” Int. J. Cancer 107(6), 1047–1052 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Oncol. (1)

Z. Huang, A. McWilliams, S. Lam, J. English, D. I. McLean, H. Lui, and H. Zeng, “Effect of formalin fixation on the near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous human bronchial tissues,” Int. J. Oncol. 23(3), 649–655 (2003).
[PubMed]

J Biophotonics (1)

A. Nijssen, S. Koljenović, T. C. Bakker Schut, P. J. Caspers, and G. J. Puppels, “Towards oncological application of Raman spectroscopy,” J Biophotonics 2(1-2), 29–36 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering tags for rapid and homogeneous detection of circulating tumor cells in the presence of human whole blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

I. P. Torres Filho, J. Terner, R. N. Pittman, E. Proffitt, and K. R. Ward, “Measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using Raman microspectroscopy and 532-nm excitation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 104(6), 1809–1817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

P. R. Carey, “Raman spectroscopy, the sleeping giant in structural biology, awakes,” J. Biol. Chem. 274(38), 26625–26628 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (1)

A. Downes, R. Mouras, and A. Elfick, “Optical spectroscopy for noninvasive monitoring of stem cell differentiation,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2010, 101864 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cancer Res. Ther. (1)

C. Murali Krishna, G. D. Sockalingum, M. S. Vidyasagar, M. Manfait, D. J. Fernanades, B. M. Vadhiraja, and K. Maheedhar, “An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers,” J. Cancer Res. Ther. 4(1), 26–36 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol. (2)

A. Nijssen, T. C. Bakker Schut, F. Heule, P. J. Caspers, D. P. Hayes, M. H. A. Neumann, and G. J. Puppels, “Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 119(1), 64–69 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gniadecka, O. Faurskov Nielsen, D. H. Christensen, and H. C. Wulf, “Structure of water, proteins, and lipids in intact human skin, hair, and nail,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 110(4), 393–398 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

I. Notingher, C. Green, C. Dyer, E. Perkins, N. Hopkins, C. Lindsay, and L. L. Hench, “Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy,” J. R. Soc. Interface 1(1), 79–90 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (7)

J. L. Deng, Q. Wei, M. H. Zhang, Y. Z. Wang, and Y. Q. Li, “Study of the effect of alcohol on single human red blood cells using near-infrared laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(3), 257–261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Kline and P. J. Treado, “Raman Chemical Imaging of Breast Tissue,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28(2–3), 119–124 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. De Gelder, K. De Gussem, P. Vandenabeele, and L. Moens, “Reference database of Raman spectra of biological molecules,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 38(9), 1133–1147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Min, T. Yamamoto, E. Kohda, T. Ito, and H. Hamaguchi, “1064 nm near-infrared multichannel Raman spectroscopy of fresh human lung tissues,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(1), 73–76 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shen, B. Zhang, J. Ping, W. Xie, P. Donfack, S.-J. Baek, X. Zhou, H. Wang, A. Materny, and J. Hu, “In vivo study on the protection of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) against the mouse acute alcoholic liver injury by micro-Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(5), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Stone, C. Kendall, N. Shepherd, P. Crow, and H. Barr, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for the classification of epithelial pre-cancers and cancers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 33(7), 564–573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, N. Huang, J. Zhao, H. Lui, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Depth-resolved in vivo micro-Raman spectroscopy of a murine skin tumor model reveals cancer-specific spectral biomarkers,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 160–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

L. Silveira, S. Sathaiah, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, M. C. Chavantes, and C. A. G. Pasqualucci, “Correlation between near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and the histopathological analysis of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(4), 290–297 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Lieber, S. K. Majumder, D. L. Ellis, D. D. Billheimer, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosis using Raman microspectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 40(7), 461–467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (2)

W.-T. Cheng, M.-T. Liu, H.-N. Liu, and S.-Y. Lin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy used to identify and grade human skin pilomatrixoma,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 68(2), 75–79 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Terada, N. Ohno, S. Saitoh, Y. Fujii, H. Ohguro, and S. Ohno, “Raman microscopy of freeze-dried mouse eyeball-slice in conjunction with the “in vivo cryotechnique”,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(7), 634–639 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pancreas (1)

A. K. Pandya, G. K. Serhatkulu, A. Cao, R. E. Kast, H. Dai, R. Rabah, J. Poulik, S. Banerjee, R. Naik, V. Adsay, G. W. Auner, M. D. Klein, J. S. Thakur, and F. H. Sarkar, “Evaluation of pancreatic cancer with Raman spectroscopy in a mouse model,” Pancreas 36(2), e1–e8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45(2), R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Res. (1)

R. Jyothi Lakshmi, V. B. Kartha, C. Murali Krishna, J. G. R Solomon, G. Ullas, and P. Uma Devi, “Tissue Raman spectroscopy for the study of radiation damage: brain irradiation of mice,” Radiat. Res. 157(2), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

O. R. Sćepanović, Z. Volynskaya, C.-R. Kong, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “A multimodal spectroscopy system for real-time disease diagnosis,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

C. Krafft, L. Neudert, T. Simat, and R. Salzer, “Near infrared Raman spectra of human brain lipids,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 61(7), 1529–1535 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the Raman system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of gastrointestinal tract (stomach, intestine and colon).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raw spectra (fluorescence and Raman) of liver, colon and adipose tissue.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Raman spectra of liver, colon and adipose tissue after removing the fluorescence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman spectra of whole blood, blood pellet, and serum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra of adipose tissue, skeletal muscles, skin.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectra of teeth and skull.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of urinary bladder, lung, and brain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman spectra of kidney, heart, liver and spleen.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Band assignments of spectra obtained from different organs and blooda

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