Abstract

Photo-physiological variability of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) per unit of chlorophyll concentration (CC) is analyzed using a biophysical model to improve the accuracy of CC assessments. Field measurements of CF and photosystem II (PSII) photochemical yield (PY) with the Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) in the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays are analyzed vs. high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) CC retrievals. It is shown that isolation from ambient light, PSII saturating excitation, optimized phytoplankton exposure to excitation, and phytoplankton dark adaptation may provide accurate in vivo CC fluorescence measurements (R2 = 0.90–0.95 vs. HPLC retrievals). For in situ or flow-through measurements that do not allow for dark adaptation, concurrent PY measurements can be used to adjust for CF non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and improve the accuracy of CC fluorescence assessments. Field evaluation has shown the NPQ-invariance of CF/PY and CF(PY−1-1) parameters and their high correlation with HPLC CC retrievals (R2 = 0.74–0.96), while the NPQ-affected CF measurements correlated poorly with CC (R2 = −0.22).

© 2011 OSA

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  5. Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
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  6. M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
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  11. M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
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  16. T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Falkowski and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll-a fluorescence in phytoplankton - relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7(5), 715–731 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. P. Raateoja, “Fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) measuring phytoplankton productivity: a case study at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea,” Boreal Environ. Res. 9, 263–276 (2004).
  29. Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Kruskopf and K. J. Flynn, “Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to gauge reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate,” New Phytol. 169(3), 525–536 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. D. Wirick, “Exchange of phytoplankton across the continental shelf-slope boundary of the Middle Atlantic Bight during spring-1988,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 41(2-3), 391–410 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. E. Alpine and J. E. Cloern, “Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes,” J. Plankton Res. 7(3), 381–390 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum - comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll-a,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(5), 791–803 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. J. Cullen and M. R. Lewis, “Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 100(C7), 13255–13266 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. E. Loftus and H. H. Seliger, “Some limitations of the in vivo fluorescence technique,” Chesap. Sci. 16(2), 79–92 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis - the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42(1), 313–349 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. R. Jacobsen, “A quantitative method for the separation of chlorophyll a and b from phytoplankton pigments by HPLC,” Mar. Sci. Comm. 4, 33–47 (1978).
  41. C. J. Lorenzen, “Determination of chlorophyll and pheo-pigments - spectrophotometric equations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 12(2), 343–346 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  42. O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).
  43. Govindje, “63 years since Kautsky - chlorophyll-a fluorescence,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 131–160 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  44. G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. C. Kromkamp and R. M. Forster, “The use of variable fluorescence measurements in aquatic ecosystems: differences between multiple and single turnover measuring protocols and suggested terminology,” Eur. J. Phycol. 38(2), 103–112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  46. S. I. Heaney, “Some observations on use of in vivo fluorescence technique to determine chlorophyll-a in natural-populations and cultures of freshwater phytoplankton,” Freshw. Biol. 8(2), 115–126 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  47. A. Stirbet and Govindjee, “On the relation between the Kautsky effect (chlorophyll a fluorescence induction) and Photosystem II: basics and applications of the OJIP fluorescence transient,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 236–257 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. S. T. Sweet and N. L. Guinasso, “Effects of flow-rate on fluorescence in vivo during continuous measurements on Gulf of Mexico surface-water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(2), 397–401 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  49. R. Röttgers, “Comparison of different variable chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques to determine photosynthetic parameters of natural phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 54(3), 437–451 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  50. A. M. Chekalyuk, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez are preparing a manuscript to be called “Laser fluorescence phytoplankton analysis across a frontal zone in the California Current Ecosystem.”

2011 (1)

A. Stirbet and Govindjee, “On the relation between the Kautsky effect (chlorophyll a fluorescence induction) and Photosystem II: basics and applications of the OJIP fluorescence transient,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 236–257 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. W. Proctor and C. S. Roesler, “New insights on obtaining phytoplankton concentration and composition from in situ multispectral chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 695–708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Röttgers, “Comparison of different variable chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques to determine photosynthetic parameters of natural phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 54(3), 437–451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Kruskopf and K. J. Flynn, “Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to gauge reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate,” New Phytol. 169(3), 525–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. P. Raateoja, “Fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) measuring phytoplankton productivity: a case study at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea,” Boreal Environ. Res. 9, 263–276 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. C. Kromkamp and R. M. Forster, “The use of variable fluorescence measurements in aquatic ecosystems: differences between multiple and single turnover measuring protocols and suggested terminology,” Eur. J. Phycol. 38(2), 103–112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen and M. R. Lewis, “Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 100(C7), 13255–13266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Govindje, “63 years since Kautsky - chlorophyll-a fluorescence,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 131–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. D. Wirick, “Exchange of phytoplankton across the continental shelf-slope boundary of the Middle Atlantic Bight during spring-1988,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 41(2-3), 391–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis - the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (2)

P. Falkowski and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll-a fluorescence in phytoplankton - relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7(5), 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Alpine and J. E. Cloern, “Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes,” J. Plankton Res. 7(3), 381–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. T. Sweet and N. L. Guinasso, “Effects of flow-rate on fluorescence in vivo during continuous measurements on Gulf of Mexico surface-water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(2), 397–401 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum - comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll-a,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(5), 791–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (2)

T. R. Jacobsen, “A quantitative method for the separation of chlorophyll a and b from phytoplankton pigments by HPLC,” Mar. Sci. Comm. 4, 33–47 (1978).

S. I. Heaney, “Some observations on use of in vivo fluorescence technique to determine chlorophyll-a in natural-populations and cultures of freshwater phytoplankton,” Freshw. Biol. 8(2), 115–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. E. Loftus and H. H. Seliger, “Some limitations of the in vivo fluorescence technique,” Chesap. Sci. 16(2), 79–92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. J. Lorenzen, “Determination of chlorophyll and pheo-pigments - spectrophotometric equations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 12(2), 343–346 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Alpine, A. E.

A. E. Alpine and J. E. Cloern, “Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes,” J. Plankton Res. 7(3), 381–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Althuis, B. A.

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angel, S. M.

Asper, V. L.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Babichenko, S.

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, J. P.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beutler, M.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bibby, T. S.

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, F.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chekalyuk, A.

A. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chekalyuk, A. M.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Churchill, J. H.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
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Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cloern, J. E.

A. E. Alpine and J. E. Cloern, “Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes,” J. Plankton Res. 7(3), 381–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Coble, P. G.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colijn, F.

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conmy, R. N.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
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T. J. Cowles, J. N. Moum, R. A. Desiderio, and S. M. Angel, “In situ monitoring of ocean chlorophyll via laser-induced fluorescence backscattering through an optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 28(3), 595–600 (1989).
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Cullen, J. J.

J. J. Cullen and M. R. Lewis, “Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 100(C7), 13255–13266 (1995).
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J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum - comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll-a,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(5), 791–803 (1982).
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Dau, H.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Castillo, C. E.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Desiderio, R. A.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cowles, J. N. Moum, R. A. Desiderio, and S. M. Angel, “In situ monitoring of ocean chlorophyll via laser-induced fluorescence backscattering through an optical fiber,” Appl. Opt. 28(3), 595–600 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donaghay, P. L.

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D'Sa, E. J.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, C. C.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P.

P. Falkowski and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll-a fluorescence in phytoplankton - relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7(5), 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
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M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
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Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fan, F.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, K. J.

M. Kruskopf and K. J. Flynn, “Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to gauge reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate,” New Phytol. 169(3), 525–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, R. M.

J. C. Kromkamp and R. M. Forster, “The use of variable fluorescence measurements in aquatic ecosystems: differences between multiple and single turnover measuring protocols and suggested terminology,” Eur. J. Phycol. 38(2), 103–112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujiki, T.

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, M. Y.

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
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Govindje,

Govindje, “63 years since Kautsky - chlorophyll-a fluorescence,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 131–160 (1995).
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Govindjee,

A. Stirbet and Govindjee, “On the relation between the Kautsky effect (chlorophyll a fluorescence induction) and Photosystem II: basics and applications of the OJIP fluorescence transient,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 236–257 (2011).
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Grob, C.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guajardo, R. C.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
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Guinasso, N. L.

S. T. Sweet and N. L. Guinasso, “Effects of flow-rate on fluorescence in vivo during continuous measurements on Gulf of Mexico surface-water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(2), 397–401 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hafez, M.

A. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, U. P.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
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Heaney, S. I.

S. I. Heaney, “Some observations on use of in vivo fluorescence technique to determine chlorophyll-a in natural-populations and cultures of freshwater phytoplankton,” Freshw. Biol. 8(2), 115–126 (1978).
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Hofstraat, H. W.

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoge, F. E.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
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Holmes, R. W.

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Holm-Hansen, O. C. J.

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Hosaka, T.

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, T.

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
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T. R. Jacobsen, “A quantitative method for the separation of chlorophyll a and b from phytoplankton pigments by HPLC,” Mar. Sci. Comm. 4, 33–47 (1978).

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T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaitala, S.

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

P. Falkowski and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll-a fluorescence in phytoplankton - relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7(5), 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kimoto, H.

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirchesch, V.

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolber, Z.

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kolber, Z. S.

M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krause, G. H.

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis - the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kromkamp, J. C.

J. C. Kromkamp and R. M. Forster, “The use of variable fluorescence measurements in aquatic ecosystems: differences between multiple and single turnover measuring protocols and suggested terminology,” Eur. J. Phycol. 38(2), 103–112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kruskopf, M.

M. Kruskopf and K. J. Flynn, “Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to gauge reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate,” New Phytol. 169(3), 525–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langner, U.

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Largier, J. L.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lavaud, J.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawrenz, E.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C. M.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leeben, A.

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

J. J. Cullen and M. R. Lewis, “Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 100(C7), 13255–13266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loftus, M. E.

M. E. Loftus and H. H. Seliger, “Some limitations of the in vivo fluorescence technique,” Chesap. Sci. 16(2), 79–92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lohrenz, S. E.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzen, C. J.

C. J. Lorenzen, “Determination of chlorophyll and pheo-pigments - spectrophotometric equations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 12(2), 343–346 (1967).
[CrossRef]

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Lüring, C.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacIntyre, H. L.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, B.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyerhöfer, M.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moldaenke, C.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moum, J. N.

Muller-Karger, F. E.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neuer, S.

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paerl, H. W.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papageorgiou, G. C.

G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parésys, G.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. J.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pinckney, J. L.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poryvkina, L.

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prasil, O.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, C. W.

C. W. Proctor and C. S. Roesler, “New insights on obtaining phytoplankton concentration and composition from in situ multispectral chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 695–708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raateoja, M. P.

M. P. Raateoja, “Fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) measuring phytoplankton productivity: a case study at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea,” Boreal Environ. Res. 9, 263–276 (2004).

Richardson, T. L.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigart, C.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roesler, C. S.

C. W. Proctor and C. S. Roesler, “New insights on obtaining phytoplankton concentration and composition from in situ multispectral chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 695–708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Röttgers, R.

R. Röttgers, “Comparison of different variable chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques to determine photosynthetic parameters of natural phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 54(3), 437–451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, B.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sackmann, B. S.

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saino, T.

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, U.

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seliger, H. H.

M. E. Loftus and H. H. Seliger, “Some limitations of the in vivo fluorescence technique,” Chesap. Sci. 16(2), 79–92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Seppala, J.

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shalapyonok, A.

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sosik, H. M.

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stamatakis, K.

G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stirbet, A.

A. Stirbet and Govindjee, “On the relation between the Kautsky effect (chlorophyll a fluorescence induction) and Photosystem II: basics and applications of the OJIP fluorescence transient,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 236–257 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, J. D. H.

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

Sweet, S. T.

S. T. Sweet and N. L. Guinasso, “Effects of flow-rate on fluorescence in vivo during continuous measurements on Gulf of Mexico surface-water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(2), 397–401 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swertz, O. C.

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swift, R. N.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge and R. N. Swift, “Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments,” Appl. Opt. 20(18), 3197–3205 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsimilli-Michael, M.

G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Twardowski, M. S.

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbloemen, L.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vargo, G. A.

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, E. A.

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weis, E.

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis - the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, C.

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, A. J.

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, K. H.

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirick, C. D.

C. D. Wirick, “Exchange of phytoplankton across the continental shelf-slope boundary of the Middle Atlantic Bight during spring-1988,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 41(2-3), 391–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. W. M.

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, C. W.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyman, K. D.

Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wyman, K. W.

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yungel, J. K.

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. (1)

G. H. Krause and E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis - the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 42(1), 313–349 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Aust. J. Plant Physiol. (2)

Govindje, “63 years since Kautsky - chlorophyll-a fluorescence,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 131–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski and Z. Kolber, “Variations in chlorophyll fluorescence yields in phytoplankton in the world oceans,” Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22(2), 341–355 (1995).
[CrossRef]

BBA.- Bioenergetics (1)

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” BBA.- Bioenergetics 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences (1)

Y. Huot, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, C. Grob, M. S. Twardowski, and H. Claustre, “Relationship between photosynthetic parameters and different proxies of phytoplankton biomass in the subtropical ocean,” Biogeosciences 4(5), 853–868 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boreal Environ. Res. (1)

M. P. Raateoja, “Fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) measuring phytoplankton productivity: a case study at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea,” Boreal Environ. Res. 9, 263–276 (2004).

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

J. J. Cullen, “The deep chlorophyll maximum - comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll-a,” Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(5), 791–803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chesap. Sci. (1)

M. E. Loftus and H. H. Seliger, “Some limitations of the in vivo fluorescence technique,” Chesap. Sci. 16(2), 79–92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (1)

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, and A. M. Chekalyuk, “Photosynthetic characteristics of marine phytoplankton from pump-during-probe fluorometry of individual cells at sea,” Cytometry 37(1), 1–13 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

R. Röttgers, “Comparison of different variable chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques to determine photosynthetic parameters of natural phytoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 54(3), 437–451 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (3)

R. J. Olson, H. M. Sosik, A. M. Chekalyuk, and A. Shalapyonok, “Effects of iron enrichment on phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean during late summer: active fluorescence and flow cytometric analyses,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 47(15-16), 3181–3200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bibby, M. Y. Gorbunov, K. W. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic community responses to upwelling in mesoscale eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 55(10-13), 1310–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Wirick, “Exchange of phytoplankton across the continental shelf-slope boundary of the Middle Atlantic Bight during spring-1988,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 41(2-3), 391–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Manage. (1)

O. C. Swertz, F. Colijn, H. W. Hofstraat, and B. A. Althuis, “Temperature, salinity, and fluorescence in Southern North Sea: high-resolution data sampled from a ferry,” Environ. Manage. 23(4), 527–538 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Phycol. (1)

J. C. Kromkamp and R. M. Forster, “The use of variable fluorescence measurements in aquatic ecosystems: differences between multiple and single turnover measuring protocols and suggested terminology,” Eur. J. Phycol. 38(2), 103–112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freshw. Biol. (1)

S. I. Heaney, “Some observations on use of in vivo fluorescence technique to determine chlorophyll-a in natural-populations and cultures of freshwater phytoplankton,” Freshw. Biol. 8(2), 115–126 (1978).
[CrossRef]

ICES J. Mar. Sci. (1)

J. H. Churnside and P. L. Donaghay, “Thin scattering layers observed by airborne lidar,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 66(4), 778–789 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. (1)

O. C. J. Holm-Hansen, C. J. Lorenzen, R. W. Holmes, and J. D. H. Strickland, “Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll,” J. Cons. Perm. Int. Explor. Mer. 30, 3–15 (1965).

J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans (1)

J. J. Cullen and M. R. Lewis, “Biological processes and optical measurements near the sea surface: Some issues relevant to remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans 100(C7), 13255–13266 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans (1)

E. J. D'Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, J. H. Churchill, V. L. Asper, J. L. Largier, and A. J. Williams, “Chloropigment distribution and transport on the inner shelf off Duck, North Carolina,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 106(C6), 11581–11596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Syst. (1)

S. Babichenko, S. Kaitala, A. Leeben, L. Poryvkina, and J. Seppala, “Phytoplankton pigments and dissolved organic matter distribution in the Gulf of Riga,” J. Mar. Syst. 23(1-3), 69–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (1)

A. Stirbet and Govindjee, “On the relation between the Kautsky effect (chlorophyll a fluorescence induction) and Photosystem II: basics and applications of the OJIP fluorescence transient,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 104(1-2), 236–257 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Plankton Res. (2)

A. E. Alpine and J. E. Cloern, “Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes,” J. Plankton Res. 7(3), 381–390 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Falkowski and D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll-a fluorescence in phytoplankton - relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7(5), 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (9)

M. Y. Gorbunov, P. G. Falkowski, and Z. S. Kolber, “Measurement of photosynthetic parameters in benthic organisms in situ using a SCUBA-based fast repetition rate fluorometer,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(1), 242–245 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, “Natural variability in photosynthetic energy-conversion efficiency - afield-study in the Gulf of Maine,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(1), 72–79 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Olson, A. M. Chekalyuk, and H. M. Sosik, “Phytoplankton photosynthetic characteristics from fluorescence induction assays of individual cells,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41(6), 1253–1263 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lorenzen, “Determination of chlorophyll and pheo-pigments - spectrophotometric equations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 12(2), 343–346 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sweet and N. L. Guinasso, “Effects of flow-rate on fluorescence in vivo during continuous measurements on Gulf of Mexico surface-water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29(2), 397–401 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Del Castillo, P. G. Coble, R. N. Conmy, F. E. Muller-Karger, L. Vanderbloemen, and G. A. Vargo, “Multispectral in situ measurements of organic matter and chlorophyll fluorescence in seawater: Documenting the intrusion of the Mississippi River plume in the West Florida Shelf,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46(7), 1836–1843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kolber and P. G. Falkowski, “Use of active fluorescence to estimate phytoplankton photosynthesis in-situ,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38(8), 1646–1665 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Perry, B. S. Sackmann, C. C. Eriksen, and C. M. Lee, “Seaglider observations of blooms and subsurface chlorophyll maxima off the Washington coast,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5_part_2), 2169–2179 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods (2)

A. Chekalyuk and M. Hafez, “Advanced laser fluorometry of natural aquatic environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 6, 591–609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Proctor and C. S. Roesler, “New insights on obtaining phytoplankton concentration and composition from in situ multispectral chlorophyll fluorescence,” Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 8, 695–708 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Biol. (1)

T. J. Cowles, R. A. Desiderio, and S. Neuer, “In situ characterization of phytoplankton from vertical profiles of fluorescence emission-spectra,” Mar. Biol. 115(2), 217–222 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

T. Fujiki, T. Hosaka, H. Kimoto, T. Ishimaru, and T. Saino, “In situ observation of phytoplankton productivity by an underwater profiling buoy system: use of fast repetition rate fluorometry,” Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 353, 81–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Sci. Comm. (1)

T. R. Jacobsen, “A quantitative method for the separation of chlorophyll a and b from phytoplankton pigments by HPLC,” Mar. Sci. Comm. 4, 33–47 (1978).

New Phytol. (1)

M. Kruskopf and K. J. Flynn, “Chlorophyll content and fluorescence responses cannot be used to gauge reliably phytoplankton biomass, nutrient status or growth rate,” New Phytol. 169(3), 525–536 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photosynth. Res. (5)

T. Jakob, U. Schreiber, V. Kirchesch, U. Langner, and C. Wilhelm, “Estimation of chlorophyll content and daily primary production of the major algal groups by means of multiwavelength-excitation PAM chlorophyll fluorometry: performance and methodological limits,” Photosynth. Res. 83(3), 343–361 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Papageorgiou, M. Tsimilli-Michael, and K. Stamatakis, “The fast and slow kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in plants, algae and cyanobacteria: a viewpoint,” Photosynth. Res. 94(2-3), 275–290 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beutler, K. H. Wiltshire, B. Meyer, C. Moldaenke, C. Lüring, M. Meyerhöfer, U. P. Hansen, and H. Dau, “A fluorometric method for the differentiation of algal populations in vivo and in situ,” Photosynth. Res. 72(1), 39–53 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, and R. N. Swift, “Short-pulse pump-and-probe technique for airborne laser assessment of Photosystem II photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 33–44 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Chekalyuk, F. E. Hoge, C. W. Wright, R. N. Swift, and J. K. Yungel, “Airborne test of laser pump-and-probe technique for assessment of phytoplankton photochemical characteristics,” Photosynth. Res. 66(1/2), 45–56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Water Res. (2)

G. Parésys, C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J. P. Barbier, and J. Lavaud, “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria,” Water Res. 39(5), 911–921 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Richardson, E. Lawrenz, J. L. Pinckney, R. C. Guajardo, E. A. Walker, H. W. Paerl, and H. L. MacIntyre, “Spectral fluorometric characterization of phytoplankton community composition using the Algae Online Analyser,” Water Res. 44(8), 2461–2472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. M. Chekalyuk, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, M. Landry, R. Goericke, A. G. Taylor, and M. Hafez are preparing a manuscript to be called “Laser fluorescence phytoplankton analysis across a frontal zone in the California Current Ecosystem.”

G. C. Papageorgiou and Govindjee (Eds.), Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthetsis, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration (Springer, Dordrecht, 2004).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation between the HPLC measurements of Chl concentration (CC) in water samples 1–20 (Figs. 1, 2) and (A) underway Chl fluorescence measurements at the sampling locations (CFU) or (B) CF measurements in the dark-adapted water samples (CFS). Diamonds and circles represent the data from the nighttime and morning portions of the transect, respectively (marked as 1–14 and 15–20 in Figs. 1, 2). The framed and unframed regression equations are calculated for nighttime and entire data sets, respectively.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A map of shipboard ALF underway flow-through measurements in the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, April 15–16 2008. Green dots display the sampling locations for laboratory measurements of Chl fluorescence and concentration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

HPLC measurements of Chl concentration (CC) (black squares) and ALF underway fluorescence CC retrievals along the transect displayed in Fig. 1. Dark green: CC distribution calculated from the underway Chl fluorescence measurements (CFU) as CC = 4.40CFU using earlier ALF calibration with dark-adapted samples. Blue: ALF underway measurements of PSII photochemical yield (PYU). Light green: CC distribution calculated as CC = 1.88CFU/PYU using correlation in Fig. 5C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A): Comparison of Chl fluorescence in the dark-adapted water samples (CFS) and underway measurements at the sampling locations (CFU). (B): Comparison of PSII photochemical yield measured in the dark-adapted water samples (PYS) and underway at the sampling locations (PYU). Diamonds and circles represent the nighttime (samples 1-14 in Figs. 1 and 2) and morning (samples 15-20) parts of the transect, respectively. (C) and D: Comparison of fluorescence parameters CF(PY−1-1) and CFU/PYU for the data sets displayed in panels (A) and (B).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A): Correlations between the HPLC measurements of CC in water samples and fluorescence parameters CF(PY−1-1) and CF/PY calculated from Chl fluorescence (CF) and PSII photochemical yield (PY) measured in the dark-adapted water samples (B) and (D) and the underway flow-through CF and PY measurements at the sampling locations (A) and (B) marked as 1–20 in Figs. 1 and 2. Diamonds and circles represent the nighttime (samples 1-14) and morning (samples 15-20) parts of the transect, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Abbreviations and Variables

Equations (20)

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CF=K*CC= N A M 1 VσI Φ f n PSII CC=k Φ f *CC. 
Φ p =fA k p /( Af k p + k f + k d )
Φ f = k f /( Af k p + k f + k d ).
Φ m = k f /( k f + k d ).
Φ o = k f /( f k p + k f + k d ).
Φ p m =f k p /( f k p + k f + k d ) = ( Φ m Φ o ) / Φ m
Φ o / Φ m = 1 Φ p m .
Φ ' p =fA k p /( Af k p + k f + k d + k N )
Φ ' f = k f /( Af k p + k f + k d + k N )
Φ ' m = k f /( k f + k d + k N )
Φ ' o = k f / ( f k p + k f + k d + k N )
Φ ' p m =f k p /( f k p + k f + k d + k N ) = (Φ ' m Φ ' o ) /Φ ' m .
Φ m /Φ ' m = 1 + k N /( k f + k d ) = 1+NPQ.
Φ o /Φ ' o = Φ p m /Φ ' p m = 1 + k N /( f k p + k f + k d ) = 1 + ( f k p / k N +NP Q 1 ) 1
  Φ f /Φ ' f = Φ p /Φ ' p = 1 + k N /( Af k p + k f + k d ) =1 + ( Af k p / k N +NP Q 1 ) 1 .
( Φ f Φ ' f ) /Φ ' f =( Φ p Φ ' p ) /Φ ' p = ( Af k p / k N +NP Q 1 ) 1  
( Φ o Φ ' o ) /Φ ' o =( Φ p m Φ ' p m ) /Φ ' p m =  ( f k p / k N +NP Q 1 ) 1
( Φ m Φ ' m ) /Φ ' m =NPQ.
Φ f / Φ p = Φ ' f  /Φ ' p ,  and
Φ m (1/ Φ p m 1) =Φ ' m (1/Φ ' p m 1).

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