Abstract

A new concept for the optimization and optical design of miniature digital zoom optics with liquid lens elements is proposed in this research. The liquid lens elements are limited to the discrete configuration in order to obtain the optimal performance for digital zoom. We propose a newly developed digital zoom layout and optimization with a modified genetic algorism (GA) method, in order to meet the demands of a certain specification. The results show that we achieve a successful optical design and the optimization of the digital zoom optics with liquid optics, whose performance is greatly improved up to 48.68%, from the standpoint of on-axis spot size.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. W. Ren, H. Q. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Fang, C. M. Tsai, J. Macdonald, and Y.-C. Pai, “Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2401–2410 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. J. N. Nash, “Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 33(2), 333–341 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-22(5), 820–827 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Illgner, H. G. Gruber, and P. Gelabert, P., et al. “Programmable DSP platform for digital still cameras,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, (1999).
  12. S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Raman, “Image processing data flow in digital cameras,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 83–89 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Mitsuo and C. Runwei, “Genetic algorithms and engineering design,” (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997)
  15. C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. C. Fang and C. M. Tsai, “Miniature lens design and optimization with liquid lens element via genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(7), 075304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, H. Q. Xianyu, S. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Adaptive dielectric liquid lens,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14954–14960 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

1998 (2)

S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Raman, “Image processing data flow in digital cameras,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. N. Nash, “Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 33(2), 333–341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-22(5), 820–827 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. B.

Cheng, C. C.

Chou, J.-H.

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. C.

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang and C. M. Tsai, “Miniature lens design and optimization with liquid lens element via genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(7), 075304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang, C. M. Tsai, J. Macdonald, and Y.-C. Pai, “Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2401–2410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, R.

S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-C.

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. T.

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. K.

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J.

Nash, J. N.

J. N. Nash, “Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 33(2), 333–341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-22(5), 820–827 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pai, Y.-C.

Peng, R. L.

Peters, K.

S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raman, R.

R. Raman, “Image processing data flow in digital cameras,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Takahashi, I.

I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-22(5), 820–827 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. M.

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang and C. M. Tsai, “Miniature lens design and optimization with liquid lens element via genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(7), 075304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang, C. M. Tsai, J. Macdonald, and Y.-C. Pai, “Eliminating chromatic aberration in Gauss-type lens design using a novel genetic algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 46(13), 2401–2410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, S.

S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, S.-T.

Xianyu, H. Q.

Xu, S.

Yeh, J. A.

Zhu, C.

Zhuang, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (2)

J. N. Nash, “Direct torque control, induction motor vector control without an encoder,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 33(2), 333–341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A new quick-response and high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. IA-22(5), 820–827 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. C. Chen, C. M. Tsai, and Y. C. Fang, “Optical design of LCOS optical engine and optimization with genetic algorithm,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(8), 293–305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

Y. C. Fang, T. K. Liu, C. M. Tsai, J.-H. Chou, H.-C. Lin, and W. T. Lin, “Extended optimization of chromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(4), 045706 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Fang and C. M. Tsai, “Miniature lens design and optimization with liquid lens element via genetic algorithm,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(7), 075304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Venkataraman, K. Peters, and R. Hecht, “Next generation digital camera integration and software development issues,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 76–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Raman, “Image processing data flow in digital cameras,” Proc. SPIE 3302, 83–89 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Mitsuo and C. Runwei, “Genetic algorithms and engineering design,” (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997)

K. Illgner, H. G. Gruber, and P. Gelabert, P., et al. “Programmable DSP platform for digital still cameras,” IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, (1999).

Varioptic Web, http://www.varioptic.com/en/index.php .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section of a liquid lens [4].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2D plot optimized by Code V software. (a) Zoom 1 (b) Zoom 2 (c) Zoom 3 (d) Zoom 4 (e) Zoom 5 (f) Zoom 6 (g) Zoom 7 (h) Zoom 8 (i) Zoom 9.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation transform function chart of each zoom. (a) Zoom 1 (b) Zoom 2 (c) Zoom 3 (d) Zoom 4 (e) Zoom 5 (f) Zoom 6 (g) Zoom 7 (h) Zoom 8 (i) Zoom 9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow diagram of the genetic algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multi-point crossover method (a) Chromosomes xi and yi before crossover. (b) Chromosomes xi and yi after crossover.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gene mapping.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flow chart of a multi-objective optical design optimization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

2D plot optimized by GA program. (a) Zoom 1 (b) Zoom 2 (c) Zoom 3 (d) Zoom 4 (e) Zoom 5 (f) Zoom 6 (g) Zoom 7 (h) Zoom 8 (i) Zoom 9.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The GA convergence curve.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Zoom curve of the Code V optimization.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Zoom curve of the GA optimization.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Modulation transform function diagram of zoom optics after extended optimization. (a) Zoom 1 (b) Zoom 2 (c) Zoom 3 (d) Zoom 4 (e) Zoom 5 (f) Zoom 6 (g) Zoom 7 (h) Zoom 8 (i) Zoom 9.

Tables (11)

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Table 1 Glass Index of Refraction [4]

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Table 2 Liquids Index of Refraction [4]

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Table 3 Specifications of 2X Zoom Optics with Liquid Lens

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Table 4a Basic Parameters for Preliminary Design (a) General Parameters

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Table 4b Basic Parameters for Preliminary Design (b) Zoom Parameters

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Table 5 Wavelength Weighting

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Table 6 Weight Setting

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Table 7 GA Parameter Setting

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Table 8 Chromatic Aberration and Field Curves Data

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Table 9 Spot Size Data

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Table 10 Position of Lens Groups Shifts for Individual Zoom

Equations (3)

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F i t ( n ) = z = 1 9 k = 1 5 w k | S P O z k | + w 6 z = 1 9 | A X z | + w 7 z = 1 9 | L A T z |                + w 8 z = 1 9 | E F L z N E F L z O | + w 9 z = 1 9 | F I E z | ,
P ( n ) = ( max F i t ( n ) ) / s u m   n =  1 , 2 , 3 , 4, ,
x ' i = x i + β ( u i l i ) ,

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