Abstract

We investigate the influence of circular corrugations surrounding a central nanoaperture to further enhance the fluorescence count rate per emitter and control its emission directionality. Adding a single corrugation already allows to significantly increase the fluorescence signal as compared to a bare nanoaperture. A complete fluorescence characterization quantifies the excitation and emission gains contributing to the fluorescence enhancement process as the number of corrugations is increased.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. Novotny and N. H. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics,  5, 83–90 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221–232 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28, 423–425 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Mahboub, S. Carretero Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optimization of bulls eye structures for transmission enhancement,” Opt. Express 18, 11292–11299 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16, 3008–3020 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Bonod, E. Popov, D. Gérard, J. Wenger, and H. Rigneault, “Field enhancement in a circular aperture surrounded by a single channel groove,” Opt. Express 16, 2276–2287 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Novotny and N. H. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics,  5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mahboub, S. Carretero Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optimization of bulls eye structures for transmission enhancement,” Opt. Express 18, 11292–11299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2005 (1)

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

Carretero Palacios, S.

Curto, A.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

Ebbesen, T. W.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mahboub, S. Carretero Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optimization of bulls eye structures for transmission enhancement,” Opt. Express 18, 11292–11299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wenger, D. Gérard, J. Dintinger, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. Rigneault, “Emission and excitation contributions to enhanced single molecule fluorescence by gold nanometric apertures,” Opt. Express 16, 3008–3020 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujikata, J.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mahboub, S. Carretero Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optimization of bulls eye structures for transmission enhancement,” Opt. Express 18, 11292–11299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

Gérard, D.

Ishi, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28, 423–425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laux, E.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28, 423–425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahboub, O.

Makita, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Mahboub, S. Carretero Palacios, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optimization of bulls eye structures for transmission enhancement,” Opt. Express 18, 11292–11299 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and N. H. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics,  5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, R. A. Linke, T. Ishi, and K. Ohashi, “Enhanced nonlinear optical conversion from a periodically nanostructured metal film,” Opt. Lett. 28, 423–425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

Quidant, R.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

Rodrigo, S. G.

Skauli, T.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T.H.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Hulst, N. F.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. H.

L. Novotny and N. H. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics,  5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volpe, G.

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenger, J.

Yu, Z. F.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jap. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si Nano-Photodiode with a Surface Plasmon Antenna,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L364L366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. Fu and J. R. Lakowicz, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence near metallic nanostructures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 221–232 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett. 11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

L. Novotny and N. H. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics,  5, 83–90 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2, 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. F. Yu, S. H. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Mullen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.,  82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming Light from a Subwavelength Aperture,” Science,  297, 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Curto, G. Volpe, T.H. Taminiau, M. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. Van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science,  329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated nanoapertures with 1, 2, 3 and 5 corrugations. (b) and (c) Experimental configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical fluorescence correlation function and fluorescence raw time trace in the case of an aperture with three corrugations and 400 μW excitation power. (b) Fluorescence count rate per molecule CRM versus excitation power for the different samples. (c) Parameters of the numerical fits in (b). (d) Fluorescence enhancement factors relative to the open solution, in the weak excitation regime. The line is a guide to the eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation ηexc, emission ηem and total decay rate ηtot gains contributing to the global fluorescence enhancement ηF = ηexcηemtot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fluorescence intensity distribution in the back focal plane of a 1.2 NA objective for a single nanoaperture with an increasing number N of periodic corrugations. (b) Angular radiation patterns corresponding to the images in (a).

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