Abstract

We show through experiments and simulations that parallel phase modulation, a technique developed in the field of adaptive optics, can be employed to quickly determine the spectral phase profile of ultrafast laser pulses and to perform phase compensation as well as pulse shaping. Different from many existing ultrafast pulse measurement methods, the technique reported here requires no spectrum measurements of nonlinear signals. Instead, the power of nonlinear signals is used directly to quickly measure the spectral phase, a convenient feature for applications such as two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The method is found to work with both smooth and even completely random distortions. The experimental results are verified with MIIPS measurements.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

2006

2005

V. V. Lozovoy and M. Dantus, “Systematic control of nonlinear optical processes using optimally shaped femtosecond pulses,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 1970–2000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 587–589 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, “Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 24(7), 493–495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1997

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 345–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

1976

1974

Backus, S.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 587–589 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, “Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors,” Opt. Lett. 24(7), 493–495 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 587–589 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, N. M.

Beaurepaire, E.

Bridges, W. B.

Brown, W. P.

Brunner, P. T.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz, J. M. D.

Cui, M.

Dantus, M.

B. Xu, J. M. Gunn, J. M. D. Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Quantitative investigation of the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan method for simultaneous phase measurement and compensation of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(4), 750–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Lozovoy and M. Dantus, “Systematic control of nonlinear optical processes using optimally shaped femtosecond pulses,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 1970–2000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Débarre, D.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geremia, J. M.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, J. M.

Hansen, S.

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses - frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(5), 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 587–589 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, J. L.

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lazzara, S. P.

Lozovoy, V. V.

B. Xu, J. M. Gunn, J. M. D. Cruz, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Quantitative investigation of the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan method for simultaneous phase measurement and compensation of femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(4), 750–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Lozovoy and M. Dantus, “Systematic control of nonlinear optical processes using optimally shaped femtosecond pulses,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 1970–2000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maginnis, K.

Martin, J. L.

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 345–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misoguti, L.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moores, M. D.

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, “Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 25(8), 587–589 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nussmeier, T. A.

O’Meara, T. R.

Ogilvie, J. P.

Pastirk, I.

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, B.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. E.

Pedinoff, M. E.

Rabitz, H.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russek, U.

Sanguinet, J. A.

Silberberg, Y.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 345–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solinas, X.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(9), 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses - frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10(5), 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

Walmsley, I. A.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 792–794 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walowicz, K. A.

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weinacht, T. C.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Yelin, D.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 345–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, D. Meshulach, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive femtosecond pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 22(23), 1793–1795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 344(3-4), 333–338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem

V. V. Lozovoy and M. Dantus, “Systematic control of nonlinear optical processes using optimally shaped femtosecond pulses,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 1970–2000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(4), 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(2), 571–579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, K. A. Walowicz, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. II. Control of two- and three-photon laser induced fluorescence with shaped pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 118(7), 3187–3196 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silberberg, “Adaptive ultrashort pulse compression and shaping,” Opt. Commun. 138(4-6), 345–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Parallel phase modulation profile for 32 pixels in 128 modulation steps. (b) Operation procedure of PRISM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results. (a) transform limited 40 fs laser pulse with center wavelength at 800 nm. (b) with 7000 fs2 group delay dispersion. (c) after the first round of PRISM compression. (d) after the second round of PRISM compression. (e) after the third round of PRISM compression. (f) the power spectrum of the pulse and the phase residual. (g) added random phase distortion. (h) the distorted pulse in time domain. (i) after the first round of PRISM compression. (j) after the second round of PRISM compression. (k) after the third round of PRISM compression. (l) the power spectrum of the pulse and the phase residual.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PRISM setup. Femtosecond laser, Coherent Chameleon Ultra II; Prism compressor, Coherent Chameleon precomp; M0, M1 and M2, mirrors; CM, concave mirror; R SLM, reflective SLM; BS, beam splitter; NDF, neutral density filter; P, photodiode; ACL, achromatic lens; SPF, short pass filter; L, plano-convex lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Compensation phase profiles determined by PRISM and MIIPS. (b) Power spectrum of the laser. (c) Added random phase distortion. (d) Compensation phase profile determined by PRISM. (e) Unwrapped summation of (c) and (d). (f) The MIIPS compensation profile in (a) and the phase in (e) with their 0th and 1st order phase differences removed.

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