Abstract

Periodically poled crystal (PPC) is a key component for nonlinear optical applications. Its poling quality relies largely on successful domain inversion and the alignment of spontaneous polarization (SP) vectors in each domain. Here we report the unexpected observation of bulk second harmonic generation (SHG) in PPC when excitation propagating along its optical axis. Based on its tensorial nature, SHG is highly sensitive to the orientation of SP, and therefore the misalignment of SP in each domain of PPC can be revealed noninvasively by SHG microscopy. This nonlinear imaging modality provides optical sectioning capability with 3D sub-micrometer resolution, so it will be useful for in situ investigation of poling quality in PPC.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  20. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 78(3-4), 363–366 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Kaneshiro, Y. Uesu, and T. Fukui, “Visibility of inverted domain structures using the second harmonic generation microscope: comparison of interference and non-interference cases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 888–894 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

J. Kaneshiro, Y. Uesu, and T. Fukui, “Visibility of inverted domain structures using the second harmonic generation microscope: comparison of interference and non-interference cases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 888–894 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sheng, A. Best, H. J. Butt, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, and K. Koynov, “Three-dimensional ferroelectric domain visualization by Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16539–16545 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, Y. Jiang, G. Xu, and I. B. Zotova, “Review of recent efforts on efficient generation of monochromatic THz pulses based on difference-frequency generation,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 917–930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Tzeng, Y. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, J. M. Liu, H. C. Chui, H. L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S. W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7304–7309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Harris, G. Norris, and G. McConnell, “Characterisation of periodically poled materials using nonlinear microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5667–5672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Y. Lin, S. T. Lin, G. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Chen, “Electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator as a laser Q-switch,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 545–547 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 78(3-4), 363–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Missey, S. Russell, V. Dominic, R. G. Batchko, and K. L. Schepler, “Real-time visualization of domain formation in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 6(10), 186–195 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, “In situ video observation of 180° domain kinetics in congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2482–2484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Grubsky, S. Maccormack, and J. Feinberg, “All-optical three-dimensional mapping of 180° domains hidden in a BaTiO3 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 6–8 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Z. W. Hu, P. A. Thomas, and J. Webjorn, “High-resolution x-ray characterization of periodically domain-inverted nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A189–A194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

F. Saurenbach and B. D. Terris, “Imaging of ferroelectric domain-walls by force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(17), 1703–1705 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Kahmann, R. Matull, R. A. Rupp, and J. Seglins, “Polarization topography in photorefractive ferroelectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 13(5), 405–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Angert, N.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arie, A.

Barry, I. E.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R. G.

Belmonte, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Best, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brillert, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Butkus, R.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Butt, H. J.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G. W.

Chen, T.-H.

Chen, Y. H.

Chiang, A. C.

Chu, S. W.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Tzeng, Y. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, J. M. Liu, H. C. Chui, H. L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S. W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7304–7309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, H. C.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Tzeng, Y. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, J. M. Liu, H. C. Chui, H. L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S. W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7304–7309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, H.-C.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, G.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 78(3-4), 363–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Y. J. Ding, Y. Jiang, G. Xu, and I. B. Zotova, “Review of recent efforts on efficient generation of monochromatic THz pulses based on difference-frequency generation,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 917–930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dominic, V.

Dong, C. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ellenbogen, T.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, T.

Galvanauskas, A.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganany-Padowicz, A.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Granda, M.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, “In situ video observation of 180° domain kinetics in congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2482–2484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

Guntherodt, H. J.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haefke, H.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

Heuer, L.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hiraga, D.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, T.-S.

Ho, Y.

Hofmann, D.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Howald, L.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. W.

Z. W. Hu, P. A. Thomas, and J. Webjorn, “High-resolution x-ray characterization of periodically domain-inverted nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A189–A194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. H.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Tzeng, Y. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, J. M. Liu, H. C. Chui, H. L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S. W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7304–7309 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-H.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, P.-L.

Huang, S.-L.

Huang, Y. C.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Lin, S. T. Lin, G. W. Chang, A. C. Chiang, Y. C. Huang, and Y. H. Chen, “Electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator as a laser Q-switch,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 545–547 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janner, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. X.

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, “In situ video observation of 180° domain kinetics in congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2482–2484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. J. Ding, Y. Jiang, G. Xu, and I. B. Zotova, “Review of recent efforts on efficient generation of monochromatic THz pulses based on difference-frequency generation,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 917–930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kahmann, F.

F. Kahmann, R. Matull, R. A. Rupp, and J. Seglins, “Polarization topography in photorefractive ferroelectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 13(5), 405–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaneshiro, J.

J. Kaneshiro, Y. Uesu, and T. Fukui, “Visibility of inverted domain structures using the second harmonic generation microscope: comparison of interference and non-interference cases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 888–894 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kato, N.

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawado, S.

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, S.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, K.

Krolikowski, W.

Kubitscheck, U.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

Kurimura, S.

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lareah, I.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurell, F.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. S.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-S.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. T.

Lin, Y. Y.

Liu, H. L.

Liu, J. M.

Lo, W.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lou, C.

Lüthi, R.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maccormack, S.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matull, R.

F. Kahmann, R. Matull, R. A. Rupp, and J. Seglins, “Polarization topography in photorefractive ferroelectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 13(5), 405–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McConnell, G.

Meade, T.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, E.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, K. P.

R. Lüthi, H. Haefke, K. P. Meyer, E. Meyer, L. Howald, and H. J. Guntherodt, “Surface and domain-structures of ferroelectric-crystals studied with scanning force microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(12), 7461–7471 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Missey, M. J.

Mitchell, T. E.

V. Gopalan, Q. X. Jia, and T. E. Mitchell, “In situ video observation of 180° domain kinetics in congruent LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2482–2484 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norris, G.

Norris, T. B.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S.-C.

Perlin, V.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A. P.

A. Dubietis, R. Butkus, and A. P. Piskarskas, “Trends in chirped pulse optical parametric amplification,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(2), 163–172 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupp, R. A.

F. Kahmann, R. Matull, R. A. Rupp, and J. Seglins, “Polarization topography in photorefractive ferroelectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 13(5), 405–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Russell, S.

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sandmann, C.

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 78(3-4), 363–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saurenbach, F.

F. Saurenbach and B. D. Terris, “Imaging of ferroelectric domain-walls by force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(17), 1703–1705 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

Schreiber, G.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seglins, J.

F. Kahmann, R. Matull, R. A. Rupp, and J. Seglins, “Polarization topography in photorefractive ferroelectrics,” Europhys. Lett. 13(5), 405–410 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Y.

Skettrup, T.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skliar, A.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

Y. Saito, M. Kobayashi, D. Hiraga, K. Fujita, S. Kawano, N. I. Smith, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, “z-Polarization sensitive detection in micro-Raman spectroscopy by radially polarized incident light,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 39(11), 1643–1648 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

I. E. Barry, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, R. W. Eason, and G. Cook, “Microstructuring of lithium niobate using differential etch-rate between inverted and non-inverted ferroelectric domains,” Mater. Lett. 37(4-5), 246–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

Sun, J. Q.

Sun, Q. Z.

Terris, B. D.

F. Saurenbach and B. D. Terris, “Imaging of ferroelectric domain-walls by force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(17), 1703–1705 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P. A.

Z. W. Hu, P. A. Thomas, and J. Webjorn, “High-resolution x-ray characterization of periodically domain-inverted nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A189–A194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.-C.

Tseitlin, M.

G. Rosenman, A. Skliar, I. Lareah, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, and M. Roth, “Observation of ferroelectric domain structures by secondary-electron microscopy in as-grown KTiOPO4 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(9), 6222–6226 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulli, D.

D. Janner, D. Tulli, M. Garcia-Granda, M. Belmonte, and V. Pruneri, “Micro-structured integrated electro-optic LiNbO3 modulators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 301–313 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, Y. W.

Tzeng, Y. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uesu, Y.

J. Kaneshiro, Y. Uesu, and T. Fukui, “Visibility of inverted domain structures using the second harmonic generation microscope: comparison of interference and non-interference cases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(5), 888–894 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voloch-Bloch, N.

T. Ellenbogen, N. Voloch-Bloch, A. Ganany-Padowicz, and A. Arie, “Nonlinear generation and manipulation of Airy beams,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 395–398 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webjorn, J.

Z. W. Hu, P. A. Thomas, and J. Webjorn, “High-resolution x-ray characterization of periodically domain-inverted nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A189–A194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H.

Y. S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, “Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(18), 2505–2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

Y. J. Ding, Y. Jiang, G. Xu, and I. B. Zotova, “Review of recent efforts on efficient generation of monochromatic THz pulses based on difference-frequency generation,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 917–930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuo, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Zhuo, C. S. Liao, C. H. Huang, J. Y. Yu, Y. Y. Tzeng, W. Lo, C. Y. Dong, H. C. Chui, Y. C. Huang, H. M. Lai, and S. W. Chu, “Second harmonic generation imaging - a new method for unraveling molecular information of starch,” J. Struct. Biol. 171(1), 88–94 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.-Y.

J.-Y. Yu, C.-S. Liao, Z.-Y. Zhuo, C.-H. Huang, H.-C. Chui, and S.-W. Chu, “A diffraction-limited scanning system providing broad spectral range for laser scanning microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(11), 113704 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zotova, I. B.

Y. J. Ding, Y. Jiang, G. Xu, and I. B. Zotova, “Review of recent efforts on efficient generation of monochromatic THz pulses based on difference-frequency generation,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 917–930 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. (2)

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Inspection of periodically poled waveguide devices by confocal luminescence microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 78(3-4), 363–366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Sohler, and H. Fuchs, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domains in LiNbO3 with micron resolution in lateral and axial directions,” Appl. Phys. B-Lasers Opt. 67(5), 593–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Uesu, H. Yokota, S. Kawado, J. Kaneshiro, S. Kurimura, and N. Kato, “Three-dimensional observations of periodically poled domains in a LiTaO3 quasiphase matching crystal by second harmonic generation tomography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 182904 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. M. Hvam, K. Pedersen, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Skettrup, and M. Belmonte, “Second-harmonic imaging of ferroelectric domain walls,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1814–1816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the scanning SHG microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SHG images of a well-poled PPLN. (a) is an x-y section at 280 μm depth from the sample surface. Arrows point out the poled domains while the arrow heads point out the non-poled domains. Scale bar: 100 μm (b) is the SHG intensity line profile across three periods showing that strong SHG is observed only at domain boundaries. (c) shows x-z sections of the bulk (left) and PPLN (right) areas, corresponding to the position of green and red dash lines in (a), respectively. Scale bar: 100 μm

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG optical sections of a poorly-poled PPLN. (a) is an x-y section obtained at 300 μm from the sample surface. The poled and non-poled domains are marked with arrows and arrowheads, respectively. Scale bar: 50 μm. (b) is an x-z section corresponding to the position of yellow dashed line in (a). Red stars mark the merging of poled domains in x-y or x-z sections. The scale of x-axis is the same as (a), but for the sake of display, the z-axis in (b) is not in scale (sample thickness: 500 μm). (c) is the SHG intensity line profile across three poling periods showing SHG emission within the non-poled domains.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) x-y optical section of a moderately-poled PPLN. Scale bar: 50 μm. (b) and (c) are enlarged portions of regions 1 and 2 in (a), respectively. Three different lines are selected, and their SHG line profiles are shown in (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematics of (a) normal poling, (b) over-poling, and (c) thick PPLN with both poled and non-poled are oblique. Arrows are ferroelectric polarization vectors.

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