Abstract

We propose a planar long-period grating filter based on coupling between the long-range surface plasmon mode and a cladding mode of a fully buried metal stripe waveguide. Using a 2.5-mm-long corrugation grating produced along the surface of an epoxy-clad aluminum stripe waveguide, we achieve a rejection band with a contrast of ~18 dB at the wavelength ~1500 nm, which can be tuned by ~25 nm with a temperature change of ~30°C. The experimental results agree closely with the simulation results. The filter could find applications in surface-plasmon-based integrated-optic circuits and biosensors.

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  1. J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Jiang, C. L. Callender, S. Jacob, J. P. Noad, S. Chen, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith., “Long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides embedded in fluorinated polymer,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3892–3900 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires—fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 325–329 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, 1985).
  17. Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3399–3405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 484–588 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires—fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 325–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Al-Bader, S. J.

S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires—fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 325–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Callender, C. L.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, S.

Chiang, K. S.

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3399–3405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. K.

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, G.

Honkanen, S.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, S.

Jetté-Charbonneau, S.

Jiang, J.

Kim, J. T.

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P. S.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kjaer, K.

Lahoud, N.

Larsen, M. S.

Leosson, K.

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and V. Rastogi, “Analysis of corrugated long-period gratings in slab waveguides and their polarization dependence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3399–3405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lor, K. P.

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

Mattiussi, G. A.

Najafi, S. I.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

Noad, J. P.

Oh, C.-H.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, V.

Shin, J.-S.

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S.-Y.

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. W.

Song, S. H.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tervonen, A.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Won, H. S.

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. S. Won, K. C. Kim, S. H. Song, C.-H. Oh, P. S. Kim, S. Park, and S. I. Kim, “Vertical coupling of long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 011110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, and C. K. Chow, “Temperature sensitivity of a long-period waveguide grating in a channel waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Al-Bader, “Optical transmission on metallic wires—fundamental modes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(3), 325–329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(3), 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Park, J. T. Kim, J.-S. Shin, and S.-Y. Shin, “Hybrid vertical directional coupling between a long range surface plasmon polariton waveguide and a dielectric waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 282(23), 4513–4517 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B 33(8), 5186–5201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A planar long-period grating with pitch Λ and corrugation depth Δh formed on the surface of a dielectric-clad metal stripe waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric-field distributions of (a) the LRSP mode and (b) the fourth vertically confined cladding mode of a 15-nm thick and 2-μm wide Al stripe waveguide buried in an 11.5-μm thick epoxy cladding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode spectrum of the fabricated Al stripe waveguide obtained from the output of the prism-coupler system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Microscopic image of the grating sample and (b) corrugation profile of a typical grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized transmission spectra of the filter measured at 24.2, 34.5, and 46.7°C with the insets showing the output near-field images (taken at 24.2°C) at the resonance wavelength 1500 nm and an off-resonance wavelength 1536 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependence of the resonance wavelength of the grating.

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