Abstract

As many as 20-70% of patients undergoing breast conserving surgery require repeat surgeries due to a close or positive surgical margin diagnosed post-operatively [1]. Currently there are no widely accepted tools for intra-operative margin assessment which is a significant unmet clinical need. Our group has developed a first-generation optical visible spectral imaging platform to image the molecular composition of breast tumor margins and has tested it clinically in 48 patients in a previously published study [2]. The goal of this paper is to report on the performance metrics of the system and compare it to clinical criteria for intra-operative tumor margin assessment. The system was found to have an average signal to noise ratio (SNR) >100 and <15% error in the extraction of optical properties indicating that there is sufficient SNR to leverage the differences in optical properties between negative and close/positive margins. The probe had a sensing depth of 0.5-2.2 mm over the wavelength range of 450-600 nm which is consistent with the pathologic criterion for clear margins of 0-2 mm. There was <1% cross-talk between adjacent channels of the multi-channel probe which shows that multiple sites can be measured simultaneously with negligible cross-talk between adjacent sites. Lastly, the system and measurement procedure were found to be reproducible when evaluated with repeated measures, with a low coefficient of variation (<0.11). The only aspect of the system not optimized for intra-operative use was the imaging time. The manuscript includes a discussion of how the speed of the system can be improved to work within the time constraints of an intra-operative setting.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. C. Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2009,” (2009).
  5. C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  8. A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  9. A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  11. S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. M. Kuerer, “If at first or second you don’t succeed: mastectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 864–865 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. T. L. Huston and R. M. Simmons, “Locally recurrent breast cancer after conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 189(2), 229–235 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. L. Huston and R. M. Simmons, “Locally recurrent breast cancer after conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 189(2), 229–235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

H. M. Kuerer, “If at first or second you don’t succeed: mastectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 864–865 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, S.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ames, F. C.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiera, G. V.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, W. T.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, K. L.

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellafiore, F. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleiweiss, I.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulos, F. I.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breslin, T. M.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchholz, T. A.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabioglu, N.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cendán, J. C.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerda, S.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chagpar, A.

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, A. E.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, V.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cimmino, V. M.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, M.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Coco, D.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, J. P.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, R.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Copeland, E. M.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C. E.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Creager, A. J.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darby, S.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, C.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

de Las Morenas, A.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diehl, K. A.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillon, M. F.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elkhuizen, P. H. M.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elphinstone, P.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Evans, E.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Feig, B. W.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gajdos, C.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geisinger, K. R.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Geradts, J.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, K. W.

Godwin, J.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Gray, R.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Greenberg, H. M.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Griffith, K.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruen, R. L.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harter, J.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermans, J.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hicks, C.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hill, A. D.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, E.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, K. K.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huston, T. L.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Huston and R. M. Simmons, “Locally recurrent breast cancer after conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 189(2), 229–235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, L.

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, S.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Johnson, P. A.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junker, M. K.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, J.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavanah, M.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, M. D.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelley, M. C.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, S. A.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, T.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinsella, T.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiviniemi, H. O.

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kong, A.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotynek, J. G.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, N. N.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Kuerer, H. M.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Kuerer, “If at first or second you don’t succeed: mastectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 864–865 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunos, C.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurniawan, E. D.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamorte, W. W.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latson, L.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. C.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leer, J. W. H.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, J.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacKinnon, E.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahvi, D. M.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majumder, S. K.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, G. B.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mc Dermott, E. W.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGale, P.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

McHugh, T.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Méndez, J. E.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meric-Bernstam, F.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meszoely, I. M.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, J. A.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, L. K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mou, A.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muñoz, A.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazemi, J.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, L. A.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicosia, S. V.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

O’Doherty, A.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Higgins, N.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oliphant, U. J.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, G. M.

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olson, T. P.

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osborne, M. P.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Overmoyer, B.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paloneva, T. K.

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peto, R.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pigalarga, R.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pistey, R.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, C. M.

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, T. M. Breslin, F. Xu, K. W. Gilchrist, and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part II: Application to breast cancer diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1072–1078 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Palmer and N. Ramanujam, “Monte Carlo-based inverse model for calculating tissue optical properties. Part I: Theory and validation on synthetic phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1062–1071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintgen, D. S.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Richards, L. M.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rissanen, T. J.

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, K.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, A.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowland, K. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saarela, A. O.

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sabel, M. S.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahin, A.

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahin, A. A.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, J. A.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shenk, R.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silverman, P.

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simmons, R. M.

T. L. Huston and R. M. Simmons, “Locally recurrent breast cancer after conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 189(2), 229–235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singletary, S. E.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, M. D.

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tartter, P. I.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, C.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tousimis, E.

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Velde, C. J. H.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Vijver, M. J.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwanath, K.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volynskaya, Z.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Wangensteen, S.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Whitman, G. J.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windle, I.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, M. H.

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, F.

Yen, T.

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, P. R.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zapetti, D.

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, C. F.

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonderland, H. M.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysk, A. M.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Surg.

L. G. Wilke, J. Q. Brown, T. M. Bydlon, S. A. Kennedy, L. M. Richards, M. K. Junker, J. Gallagher, W. T. Barry, J. Geradts, and N. Ramanujam, “Rapid noninvasive optical imaging of tissue composition in breast tumor margins,” Am. J. Surg. 198(4), 566–574 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chagpar, T. Yen, A. Sahin, K. K. Hunt, G. J. Whitman, F. C. Ames, M. I. Ross, F. Meric-Bernstam, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, and H. M. Kuerer, “Intraoperative margin assessment reduces reexcision rates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 186(4), 371–377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Huston, R. Pigalarga, M. P. Osborne, and E. Tousimis, “The influence of additional surgical margins on the total specimen volume excised and the reoperative rate after breast-conserving surgery,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 509–512 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Méndez, W. W. Lamorte, A. de Las Morenas, S. Cerda, R. Pistey, T. King, M. Kavanah, E. Hirsch, and M. D. Stone, “Influence of breast cancer margin assessment method on the rates of positive margins and residual carcinoma,” Am. J. Surg. 192(4), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Singletary, “Surgical margins in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 184(5), 383–393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. I. Tartter, J. Kaplan, I. Bleiweiss, C. Gajdos, A. Kong, S. Ahmed, and D. Zapetti, “Lumpectomy margins, reexcision, and local recurrence of breast cancer,” Am. J. Surg. 179(2), 81–85 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Huston and R. M. Simmons, “Locally recurrent breast cancer after conservation therapy,” Am. J. Surg. 189(2), 229–235 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol.

N. Cabioglu, K. K. Hunt, A. A. Sahin, H. M. Kuerer, G. V. Babiera, S. E. Singletary, G. J. Whitman, M. I. Ross, F. C. Ames, B. W. Feig, T. A. Buchholz, and F. Meric-Bernstam, “Role for intraoperative margin assessment in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(4), 1458–1471 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Olson, J. Harter, A. Muñoz, D. M. Mahvi, and T. Breslin, “Frozen section analysis for intraoperative margin assessment during breast-conserving surgery results in low rates of re-excision and local recurrence,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(10), 2953–2960 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Dillon, E. W. Mc Dermott, A. O’Doherty, C. M. Quinn, A. D. Hill, and N. O’Higgins, “Factors affecting successful breast conservation for ductal carcinoma in situ,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 14(5), 1618–1628 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Kuerer, “If at first or second you don’t succeed: mastectomy?” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 12(11), 864–865 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Kurniawan, M. H. Wong, I. Windle, A. Rose, A. Mou, M. Buchanan, J. P. Collins, J. A. Miller, R. L. Gruen, and G. B. Mann, “Predictors of surgical margin status in breast-conserving surgery within a breast screening program,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(9), 2542–2549 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jacobs, “Positive margins: the challenge continues for breast surgeons,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 15(5), 1271–1272 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.

A. J. Creager, J. A. Shaw, P. R. Young, and K. R. Geisinger, “Intraoperative evaluation of lumpectomy margins by imprint cytology with histologic correlation: a community hospital experience,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 126(7), 846–848 (2002).
[PubMed]

Arch. Surg.

C. E. Cox, N. N. Ku, D. S. Reintgen, H. M. Greenberg, S. V. Nicosia, and S. Wangensteen, “Touch preparation cytology of breast lumpectomy margins with histologic correlation,” Arch. Surg. 126(4), 490–493 (1991).
[PubMed]

Breast J.

M. C. Lee, K. Rogers, K. Griffith, K. A. Diehl, T. M. Breslin, V. M. Cimmino, A. E. Chang, L. A. Newman, and M. S. Sabel, “Determinants of breast conservation rates: reasons for mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer center,” Breast J. 15(1), 34–40 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kunos, L. Latson, B. Overmoyer, P. Silverman, R. Shenk, T. Kinsella, and J. Lyons, “Breast conservation surgery achieving>or=2 mm tumor-free margins results in decreased local-regional recurrence rates,” Breast J. 12(1), 28–36 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

F. T. Nguyen, A. M. Zysk, E. J. Chaney, J. G. Kotynek, U. J. Oliphant, F. J. Bellafiore, K. M. Rowland, P. A. Johnson, and S. A. Boppart, “Intraoperative evaluation of breast tumor margins with optical coherence tomography,” Cancer Res. 69(22), 8790–8796 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

J. E. Bender, K. Vishwanath, L. K. Moore, J. Q. Brown, V. Chang, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “A robust Monte Carlo model for the extraction of biological absorption and scattering in vivo,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 56(4), 960–968 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.

P. H. M. Elkhuizen, M. J. van de Vijver, J. Hermans, H. M. Zonderland, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. W. H. Leer, “Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for invasive breast cancer: high incidence in young patients and association with poor survival,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 40(4), 859–867 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Coll. Surg.

J. C. Cendán, D. Coco, and E. M. Copeland, “Accuracy of intraoperative frozen-section analysis of breast cancer lumpectomy-bed margins,” J. Am. Coll. Surg. 201(2), 194–198 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Q. Liu, C. F. Zhu, and N. Ramanujam, “Experimental validation of Monte Carlo modeling of fluorescence in tissues in the UV-visible spectrum,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(2), 223–236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Volynskaya, A. S. Haka, K. L. Bechtel, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Shenk, N. Wang, J. Nazemi, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Haka, Z. Volynskaya, J. A. Gardecki, J. Nazemi, R. Shenk, N. Wang, R. R. Dasari, M. Fitzmaurice, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer using Raman spectroscopy: prospective analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054023 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Surg. Oncol.

A. O. Saarela, T. K. Paloneva, T. J. Rissanen, and H. O. Kiviniemi, “Determinants of positive histologic margins and residual tumor after lumpectomy for early breast cancer: a prospective study with special reference to touch preparation cytology,” J. Surg. Oncol. 66(4), 248–253 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lancet

M. Clarke, R. Collins, S. Darby, C. Davies, P. Elphinstone, E. Evans, J. Godwin, R. Gray, C. Hicks, S. James, E. MacKinnon, P. McGale, T. McHugh, R. Peto, C. Taylor, Y. Wang, and Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG), “Effects of radiotherapy and of differences in the extent of surgery for early breast cancer on local recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials,” Lancet 366(9503), 2087–2106 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

C. F. Zhu, G. M. Palmer, T. M. Breslin, J. Harter, and N. Ramanujam, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: Comparison of a Monte Carlo versus partial least squares analysis based feature extraction technique,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(7), 714–724 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Keller, S. K. Majumder, M. C. Kelley, I. M. Meszoely, F. I. Boulos, G. M. Olivares, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and spectral imaging for breast surgical margin analysis,” Lasers Surg. Med. 42(1), 15–23 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diagnosing breast cancer by using Raman spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(35), 12371–12376 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. C. Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures 2009,” (2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the clinical instrument and the fiber arrangement of the multi-channel probe. Each channel has 4, 200 µm collection fibers and a central bundle of 19, 200 µm illumination fibers. All 8 channels are arranged in a 4x2 array with a separation distance of 10 mm (center to center).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A) Picture of the clinical instrument. B) Picture of the fiber optic probe in an aluminum adaptor to space each of the 8 probes 10 mm apart in a 4x2 array and the two pieces of the plexi-glass box that slide together to hold the specimen in place. C) A specimen in the plexi-glass box with light gray dots (green ink) indicating the margin border and black-white striped dots (orange ink) indicating specific sites for pathology.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The 4x2 arrangement of the fibers in the multi-channel probe to show how SNR arising from cross-talk was calculated for a channel with varying separation distances (S.D.) between channels. Light gray circles represent the illumination (I) fibers, black circles represent collection fibers for channels that contribute to the noise, and dark gray circles represent the collection (C) fibers for the channel that contributes to the signal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Box and whisker plots of THb (µM), β-carotene (µM), <µs’> (cm−1), β-carotene/<µs’> (µM-cm), THb/<µs’> (µM-cm), and β-carotene/THb (a.u.) for the site-level data (n = 854). The two dark gray boxplots use the y-axis on the left and the light gray boxplots use the y-axis on the right. The box represents the median, 25th percentile, and 75th percentile; the whisker represents values within 1.5 times the interquartile range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average percent error and standard deviation of expected versus extracted plots of Hb concentration (A), Cr concentration (B), <µs’> (C), the ratio of Hb concentration to <µs’> (D), the ratio of Cr concentration to <µs’> (E), and the ratio of Cr to Hb concentration (F). Each circle refers to one phantom extracted from the best reference phantom. The solid line shows the line of perfect agreement between the expected and extracted values and the dashed lines represent the 95% prediction interval.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example images of the weighted visiting frequency in each grid separated by depth versus radial distance from the center of the illumination fiber. White lines represent the depth where a percentage (50% or 90%) of the detected photon weight distribution is contained within.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated weighted visiting frequency as a function of depth for various tissue types (P = positive, A = adipose, FG = fibro-glandular) in a single layer model. Black circles correspond to the depth at which 90% of the photons reach and are collected.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated weighted visiting frequency as a function of depth for a two-layer tissue model. The first layer is either adipose (A) or fibro-glandular (FG) tissue with a 1 mm thickness and the second layer is positive (P) with a 29 mm thickness. Black circles correspond to the depth at which 90% of the photons reach and are collected.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Box and whisker plots of site-level data. µa (A,B) and µs’ (C,D) coefficients at 450 nm and 600 nm as a function of depth. Positive sites correspond to a depth of 0 mm. Close sites are 0-1 mm and 1-2 mm. Negative sites are greater than 2 mm. P-values are only shown for categories with significant differences. The box represents the median, 25th percentile, and 75th percentile; the whisker represents values within 1.5 times the interquartile range.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

This plot shows the median coefficient of variation for the 32 sites which was calculated from 10 measurements on 4 separate lumpectomy specimens. β = β-carotene.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Signal to noise ratio of each channel at 450 and 600 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of the expected optical properties for the phantom study. β-carotene concentrations were converted into Cr concentrations by matching μa.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mean difference (bias) and standard deviation of differences (precision) between the expected and extracted phantom data.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Median values of the extracted absorption and reduced scattering coefficients at specific wavelengths for various tissue types from the site-level data. FA = fibro-adipose, FG = fibro-glandular.

Tables Icon

Table 5 The simulated 90% sensing depth of the 8-channel probe for various tissues in a single layer model and two-layer model. In the two-layer model, the first layer was simulated with a thickness of 1 mm and the second layer with a 29 mm thickness. FG = fibro-glandular.

Tables Icon

Table 6 SNR due to cross-talk calculated using MC simulation. Simulations are based on radius = 0.515 mm for illumination core and 200 µm collection fibers.

Tables Icon

Table 7 Comparison of the percent error in accuracy versus percent differences between tissue types for the extracted parameters.

Metrics