Abstract

A simple and fast time-domain method for localizing inclusions, fluorescent optical probes or absorbers, is presented. The method offers new possibilities for situations where complete tomographic measurements are not permitted by the examined object, for example in endoscopic examination of the human prostate or the oesophagus. Feasibility has been envisioned with a phantom study conducted on a point-like fluorochrome embedded in a diffusing medium mimicking the optical properties of biological tissues.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (1)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. S. Choi, and R. Cheung, “Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study,” Med. Phys. 34(1), 266–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Laidevant, A. Da Silva, M. Berger, J. Boutet, J. M. Dinten, and A. C. Boccara, “Analytical method for localizing a fluorescent inclusion in a turbid medium,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 2131–2137 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Instrumentation for video-rate near-infrared diffuse optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 124301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1999 (2)

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(7), 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Aronson and N. Corngold, “Photon diffusion coefficient in an absorbing medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(5), 1066–1071 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. F. Chang and C. Y. Wang, “A 3-D image detection method of a surface opening crack in concrete using ultrasonic transducer arrays,” J. Nondestruct. Eval. 16(4), 193–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. L. Hutchinson, J. R. Lakowicz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing in tissues: a computational study,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1574–1582 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yodh and B. Chance, “Spectroscopy and imaging with diffusing light,” Phys. Today 48(3), 34–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

Arridge, S. R.

L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, “Application of temporal filters to time resolved data in optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(7), 1699–1717 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, T.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, K. E.

Berger, M.

Boccara, A. C.

Boutet, J.

Branco, G.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunting, C. F.

Chance, B.

Chang, Y. F.

Y. F. Chang and C. Y. Wang, “A 3-D image detection method of a surface opening crack in concrete using ultrasonic transducer arrays,” J. Nondestruct. Eval. 16(4), 193–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, R.

C. Y. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. S. Choi, and R. Cheung, “Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study,” Med. Phys. 34(1), 266–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. S.

C. Y. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. S. Choi, and R. Cheung, “Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study,” Med. Phys. 34(1), 266–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corngold, N.

Cova, S.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, A.

Dalla Mora, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

Del Bianco, S.

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(7), 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinten, J. M.

Dinten, J.-M.

Douek, M.

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enfield, L. C.

Everdell, N. L.

Gibson, A. P.

L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D.

Hall, D. J.

Han, S. H.

Hebden, J. C.

L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, N. L. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, C. Richardson, M. Keshtgar, M. Douek, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional time-resolved optical mammography of the uncompressed breast,” Appl. Opt. 46(17), 3628–3638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holyoak, G. R.

Hutchinson, C. L.

C. L. Hutchinson, J. R. Lakowicz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing in tissues: a computational study,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1574–1582 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

D. Piao, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Instrumentation for video-rate near-infrared diffuse optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 124301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Keshtgar, M.

Krasinski, J. S.

Laidevant, A.

Lakowicz, J. R.

C. L. Hutchinson, J. R. Lakowicz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing in tissues: a computational study,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1574–1582 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesage, F.

Li, C. Y.

C. Y. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. S. Choi, and R. Cheung, “Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study,” Med. Phys. 34(1), 266–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liengsawangwong, R.

C. Y. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. S. Choi, and R. Cheung, “Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study,” Med. Phys. 34(1), 266–274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, G.

Martelli, F.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musgrove, C. H.

Patterson, M. S.

Piao, D.

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. L. Zhang, J. S. Krasinski, G. L. Zhang, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, “Endoscopic, rapid near-infrared optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 31(19), 2876–2878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Instrumentation for video-rate near-infrared diffuse optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 124301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, C.

Ritchey, J. W.

Schweiger, M.

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

C. L. Hutchinson, J. R. Lakowicz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Fluorescence lifetime-based sensing in tissues: a computational study,” Biophys. J. 68(4), 1574–1582 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slobodov, G.

Spinelli, L.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

D. Piao, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, S. Srinivasan, and B. W. Pogue, “Instrumentation for video-rate near-infrared diffuse optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 124301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, S. Del Bianco, and G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved reflectance at null source-detector separation: improving contrast and resolution in diffuse optical imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(7), 078101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosi, A.

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. Dalla Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(13), 138101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. Y.

Y. F. Chang and C. Y. Wang, “A 3-D image detection method of a surface opening crack in concrete using ultrasonic transducer arrays,” J. Nondestruct. Eval. 16(4), 193–203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. K. H.

Wang, Y.

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Wyatt, J. S.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

Xu, G.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental time resolved setup. L.D.: Laser Diode; F: Filters; L: lens; PD: photodiode; E.OF: excitation optical fiber; D.OF: detection optical fiber; PM: photomultiplier; TCSPC: time correlated single photon counting system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relative positions of the five different pairs of source (cross markers) and detector (plain dot markers); (b) TPSFs of the five selected measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Different points of view of the 3D surface defined by the set of points solution of Eq. (3) for the measurement S1D1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Different points of view of the 3D surfaces for the measurement S1D1 (d1 = 2.27 cm), S3D3 (d3 = 2.73 cm) and S4D4 (d4 = 2.39 cm) merged with the actual position (plain dot marker) and the position of the fluorochrome defined by the intersection of the three 3D surfaces (star markers).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Different points of view of the position of the fluorochrome (star markers) defined by the intersection of the whole set of measured 3D surfaces (not plotted); the actual position is represented as a plain cross marker.

Equations (7)

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{ 1 c n φ x ( r , t ) t + . ( D x ( r ) φ x ( r , t ) ) + µ a x ( r ) φ x ( r , t ) = S O δ ( r r s ) δ ( t ) 1 c n φ m ( r , t ) t + . ( D m ( r ) φ m ( r , t ) ) + µ a m ( r ) φ m ( r , t ) = β ( r ) 0 t exp ( ( t t ' ) τ ( r ) ) φ x ( r , t ' ) d t '
φ m ( r , r s , t ) V [ g m ( r , r , t ) t exp ( t τ ( r ) ) t g x ( r s , r , t ) ] d r
1 c n g x , m ( r , t ) t + . ( D x , m ( r ) g x , m ( r , t ) ) + µ a x , m ( r ) g x , m ( r , t ) = δ ( r r s ) δ ( t )
g x , m ( r , r , t ) = c n ( 4 π D x , m c n t ) 3 / 2 exp ( μ a x , m c t )     exp ( | r r | 2 4 D x , m c n t )
m k = + t k φ m ( r , t ) d t / + φ m ( r , t ) d t = < t k > = ( i ) k k Φ ˜ ( ω ) ω k | ω = 0 × 1 Φ ˜ ( ω ) | ω = 0
m 1 = < t > = < t > x + < t > m + τ = | r s r | ν x + | r r d | ν m + τ ν x , m = 2 c n μ a x , m D x , m
| r s r | + | r r d | = ν ( < t > τ ) = d

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