Abstract

We have demonstrated coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with a single-pass picosecond supercontinuum-seeded optical parametric amplifier (SCOPA). The SCOPA was pumped by a frequency-doubled picosecond passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser, and was seeded by a supercontinuum light source. Compared with the conventional experimental setups of CARS microscopy, our exposition is substantially simpler because the pump and Stokes lasers are overlapped in the SCOPA automatically and thus steered into a microscope coherently. The feasibility of this novel light source to CARS imaging was illustrated by acquiring the fundamental and overtone CARS images of the aromatic C-H stretching mode of polystyrene beads and an image of the pharynx of a C. elegans of the aliphatic C-H stretching mode.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (5)

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Krauss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, D. Träutlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Selm, M. Winterhalder, and A. Zumbusch, “Compact coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope based on a picosecond two-color Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2847–2849 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

2008 (4)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Analytical capabilities of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(19), 3237–3254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonpertubative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. Sunney Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, “Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1292–1294 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti- Stokes scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

E. W. Crandall and A. N. Jagtap, “The near-infrared spectra of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21(2), 449–454 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, E. R.

Arie, A.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arora, R.

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Analytical capabilities of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(19), 3237–3254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birkedal, V.

Büttner, E.

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

Chang, W.-T.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H.-C.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, “High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1168–1170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chow, R. H.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.-W.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Chui, H.-C.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Cicerone, M. T.

Couderc, V.

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

Crandall, E. W.

E. W. Crandall and A. N. Jagtap, “The near-infrared spectra of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21(2), 449–454 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Evans, C. L.

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Freudiger, C. W.

Fu, L.

Galun, E.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganikhanov, F.

Gayer, O.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geisbauer, M.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

Hamaguchi, H.

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband (>2500 cm-1) multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy using a supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hanke, T.

Holtom, G. R.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti- Stokes scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-H.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Jagtap, A. N.

E. W. Crandall and A. N. Jagtap, “The near-infrared spectra of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21(2), 449–454 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jhan, J.-W.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

Jurna, M.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband (>2500 cm-1) multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy using a supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Kee, T. W.

Keiding, S. R.

Kieu, K.

Knight, J. C.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Kopf, D.

Korterik, J. P.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

Langohr, I. M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T. T.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Leproux, P.

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

Liau, I.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-L.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.-Y.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Liu, H.-L.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Liu, J.-M.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Locker, M. J.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, D.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michael, D. J.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffatt, D. J.

Nan, X.

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonpertubative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offerhaus, H. L.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oheim, M.

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okuno, M.

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

Otto, C.

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paulsen, H. N.

Pegoraro, A. F.

Petrov, G. I.

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Analytical capabilities of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(19), 3237–3254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Petrov and V. V. Yakovlev, “Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1299–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pezacki, J. P.

Poland, S. P.

Potma, E. O.

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonpertubative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, “High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1168–1170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ridsdale, A.

Rimke, I.

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

Sacks, Z.

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, W.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Stolow, A.

Stone, J. M.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Sturek, M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunney Xie, X.

Thøgersen, J.

Thomas, B. K.

Träutlein, D.

Tseng, Y.-W.

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Wright, A. J.

Wu, M. F.

Wu, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonpertubative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie, and J. Ye, “High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1168–1170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti- Stokes scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. V.

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Analytical capabilities of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(19), 3237–3254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Petrov and V. V. Yakovlev, “Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1299–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

M. Oheim, D. J. Michael, M. Geisbauer, D. Madsen, and R. H. Chow, “Principles of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and other nonlinear imaging approaches,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58(7), 788–808 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y.-M. Wu, H.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chang, J.-W. Jhan, H.-L. Lin, and I. Liau, “Quantitative assessment of hepatic fat of intact liver tissues with coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 81(4), 1496–1504 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Gayer, Z. Sacks, E. Galun, and A. Arie, “Temperature and wavelength dependent refractive index equations for MgO-doped congruent and stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. B 91(2), 343–348 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband (>2500 cm-1) multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy using a supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus, and C. Otto, “Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

X. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Nonpertubative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes scattering microscopy,” Biophys. J. 91(2), 728–735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. W. Crandall and A. N. Jagtap, “The near-infrared spectra of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 21(2), 449–454 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Arora, G. I. Petrov, and V. V. Yakovlev, “Analytical capabilities of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(19), 3237–3254 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1369–1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

J.-W. Jhan, W.-T. Chang, H.-C. Chen, M. F. Wu, Y. T. Lee, C. H. Chen, and I. Liau, “Integrated multiple multi-photon imaging and Raman spectroscopy for characterizing structure-constituent correlation of tissues,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16431–16441 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I. Petrov and V. V. Yakovlev, “Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1299–1306 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Okuno, H. Kano, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and H. Hamaguchi, “Ultrabroadband multiplex CARS microspectroscopy and imaging using a subnanosecond supercontinuum light source in the deep near infrared,” Opt. Express 33, 923–925 (2008).

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, C. W. Freudiger, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, “Adaptive optics for enhanced signal in CARS microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18209–18219 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-W. Tseng, Y.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Huang, J.-M. Liu, H.-C. Chui, H.-L. Liu, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, and S.-W. Chu, “Broadband tunable optical parametric amplification from a single 50 MHz ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 17, 7305–7309 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti- Stokes scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Rimke, C. L. Evans, E. Büttner, and X. S. Xie, “A new, easy to use light source for CARS microscopy based on an optical parametric oscillator,” Proc. SPIE 6630, 66300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley-Interscience, 1984).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The optical layout of a SCOPA-based CARS microscope. Note that CARS imaging can be implemented by simply guiding the output of SCOPA into a microscope. O.I.: optical isolator; HWP: half wave plate; LBO: lithium triborate; DM: dichroic mirror; PCF: photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The complete SCOPA tuning curve versus temperature with six different MgO:PPLN grating periods at temperatures from 30 °C to 200 °C. The black solid lines were experimental fitting curves according to the Sellmeier equation [25].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A CARS spectrum (a) and anti-Stokes signals (b) of a polystyrene bead.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CARS images of 2 μm polystyrene beads with field-of-view of 10x10 μm2 and a 0.1 μm step size. The CARS images for the 645 nm and the 539 nm are shown in (a) and (b), respectively. The overtone CARS imaging is shown in the image(c). Scale bar: 2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The in vivo CARS image of C. elegans with field-of-view of 80x80 μm2 and 0.2 μm step size. Scale bar: 20 μm.

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