Abstract

This study invesitigated the feasibility of measuring directional coupling between cortical areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Cerebral hemodynamic responses were recorded at the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), and primary motor cortex (M1) regions of the rat barrel cortex during electrical stimulation of rat whiskers. Deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes were calculated from NIRS recordings and the Granger causality based on the multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model was used to estimate the effective causal connectivity among S1, S2, and M1. The estimated causality patterns of seven rats showed consistent unidirectional coupling between the somatosensory areas and the motor areas (S1 and S2 → M1), which coincided well with our hypothesis because the rats’ motor function was completely anesthetized. Our preliminary results suggest that cortico-cortical directional coupling can be successfully investigated with NIRS.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Pfurtscheller and C. Andrew, “Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16(6), 512–519 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. W. J. Granger, “Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods,” Econometrica 37, 414-& (1969).
  15. L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Aydore, and M. Mihcak, “On Temporal Connectivity of PFC Via Gauss-Markov Modeling of fNIRS Signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2009).
  25. G. Paxinos, and C. Watson, The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates (Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam; Boston, 2005).
  26. C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Lee, D. Koh, K. Kwon, H. J. Lee, Y. Lang, H. C. Shin, and B. M. Kim, “Hemodynamic Responses of Rat Brain Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Various Whisker Stimulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13(1), 166–170 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  30. D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Schwarz, “Estimating Dimension of a Model,” Ann. Stat. 6(2), 461–464 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Incomplete Beta Function, Student's Distribution, F-Distribution, Cumulative Binomial Distribution (Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  36. J. Hamilton, Covariance-Stationary Vector Processes (Princeton University Press, 1994).
  37. A. K. Seth, ““Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior,” Network-Comp Neural. 16(1), 35–54 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Schlogl, “A comparison of multivariate autoregressive estimators,” Signal Process. 86(9), 2426–2429 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  39. C. C. Petersen, “The functional organization of the barrel cortex,” Neuron 56(2), 339–355 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. S. Chakrabarti and K. D. Alloway, “Differential origin of projections from SI barrel cortex to the whisker representations in SII and MI,” J. Comp. Neurol. 498(5), 624–636 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. T. Schreiber, “Measuring information transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 461–464 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  45. N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, B. L. Edlow, G. Yu, R. Choe, M. N. Kim, B. L. Cucchiara, M. E. Putt, Q. Shah, S. E. Kasner, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Transcranial optical monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics in acute stroke patients,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3884–3902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, D. Koh, K. Kwon, H. J. Lee, Y. Lang, H. C. Shin, and B. M. Kim, “Hemodynamic Responses of Rat Brain Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Various Whisker Stimulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13(1), 166–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Petersen, “The functional organization of the barrel cortex,” Neuron 56(2), 339–355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (10)

S. Chakrabarti and K. D. Alloway, “Differential origin of projections from SI barrel cortex to the whisker representations in SII and MI,” J. Comp. Neurol. 498(5), 624–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schlogl, “A comparison of multivariate autoregressive estimators,” Signal Process. 86(9), 2426–2429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Seth, ““Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior,” Network-Comp Neural. 16(1), 35–54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

T. Schreiber, “Measuring information transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 461–464 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pfurtscheller and C. Andrew, “Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16(6), 512–519 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Schwarz, “Estimating Dimension of a Model,” Ann. Stat. 6(2), 461–464 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abler, B.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlfors, S. P.

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alloway, K. D.

S. Chakrabarti and K. D. Alloway, “Differential origin of projections from SI barrel cortex to the whisker representations in SII and MI,” J. Comp. Neurol. 498(5), 624–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrew, C.

G. Pfurtscheller and C. Andrew, “Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16(6), 512–519 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M.

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astolfi, L.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiloni, C.

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babiloni, F.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bandera, A.

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbosa, C.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basilisco, A.

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bastien, D.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bejarano, B.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beland, R.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berquin, P.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouthillier, A.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brammer, M. J.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Branco, G.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brismar, T.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carducci, F.

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carmant, L.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

S. Chakrabarti and K. D. Alloway, “Differential origin of projections from SI barrel cortex to the whisker representations in SII and MI,” J. Comp. Neurol. 498(5), 624–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choe, R.

Choi, J. H.

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Christine, K.

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cichocki, A.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cincotti, F.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colosimo, A.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crainiceanu, C. M.

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, F.

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crone, N. E.

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cucchiara, B. L.

David, O.

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, P.

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Maria Felix, M.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vico Fallani, F.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dent, W.

J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Detre, J. A.

Diamond, S. G.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donini, M.

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Edlow, B. L.

Elger, C. E.

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franaszczuk, P. J.

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franceschini, M. A.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friston, K.

L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friston, K. J.

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, A.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geweke, J.

J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A. P.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goebel, R.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goñi, J.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gow, D. W.

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebe, R.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

Grova, C.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, L. M.

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, B.

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidbreder, C.

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesse, W.

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoge, R. D.

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hole, G.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horwitz, B.

L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Höse, A.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, D.

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huppert, T. J.

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, I.

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jang, K. E.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, D. K.

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Junior, E. A.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, J.

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasner, S. E.

Kato, H.

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiebel, S. J.

S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilner, J. M.

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. M.

S. Lee, D. Koh, K. Kwon, H. J. Lee, Y. Lang, H. C. Shin, and B. M. Kim, “Hemodynamic Responses of Rat Brain Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Various Whisker Stimulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13(1), 166–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Kim, M. N.

Koh, D.

S. Lee, D. Koh, K. Kwon, H. J. Lee, Y. Lang, H. C. Shin, and B. M. Kim, “Hemodynamic Responses of Rat Brain Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Various Whisker Stimulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13(1), 166–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Korzeniewska, A.

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, N.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurths, J.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kus, R.

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, K.

Lagerlund, T. D.

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lang, Y.

Lassonde, M.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

Lee, L.

L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. Lee, D. Koh, K. Kwon, H. J. Lee, Y. Lang, H. C. Shin, and B. M. Kim, “Hemodynamic Responses of Rat Brain Measured by Near-infrared Spectroscopy During Various Whisker Stimulations,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 13(1), 166–170 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Lehnertz, K.

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lepore, F.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lesage, F.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F. H.

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marciani, M. G.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masdeu, J. C.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattia, D.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattout, J.

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meese, R.

J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Möller, E.

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. I.

C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morettin, P. A.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mormann, F.

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muehlschlegel, S.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, K. R.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nehlig, A.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, S. B.

C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, D. K.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikulin, V. V.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, G.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastor, M. A.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, M.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penny, W.

K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, C. C.

C. C. Petersen, “The functional organization of the barrel cortex,” Neuron 56(2), 339–355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petreanu, L.

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfurtscheller, G.

G. Pfurtscheller and C. Andrew, “Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16(6), 512–519 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikovsky, A. S.

M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

Roche-Labarbe, N.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roebroeck, A.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenblum, M. G.

M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossini, P. M.

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rovati, L.

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinari, S.

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, J. R.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schack, B.

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlogl, A.

A. Schlogl, “A comparison of multivariate autoregressive estimators,” Signal Process. 86(9), 2426–2429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schlögl, A.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

T. Schreiber, “Measuring information transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 461–464 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwamm, L. H.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, G.

G. Schwarz, “Estimating Dimension of a Model,” Ann. Stat. 6(2), 461–464 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, J. A.

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepulcre, J.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seth, A. K.

A. K. Seth, ““Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior,” Network-Comp Neural. 16(1), 35–54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shah, Q.

Shimoda, N.

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. C.

Sobczyk, A.

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorensen, A. G.

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sur, M.

C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweeney, J.

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tak, S.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, D. Y.

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeda, K.

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vannasing, P.

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoslada, P.

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallois, F.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, H.

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worrell, G. A.

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Yu, G.

Yusof, R. M.

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaaimi, B.

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zee, P.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

Ziehe, A.

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Stat. (1)

G. Schwarz, “Estimating Dimension of a Model,” Ann. Stat. 6(2), 461–464 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, S. Salinari, L. Ding, Y. Ni, B. He, and F. Babiloni, “Assessing cortical functional connectivity by linear inverse estimation and directed transfer function: simulations and application to real data,” Clin. Neurophysiol. 116(4), 920–932 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epilepsia (1)

N. Roche-Labarbe, B. Zaaimi, P. Berquin, A. Nehlig, R. Grebe, and F. Wallois, “NIRS-measured oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes associated with EEG spike-and-wave discharges in children,” Epilepsia 49(11), 1871–1880 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hum. Brain Mapp. (2)

A. Korzeniewska, C. M. Crainiceanu, R. Kuś, P. J. Franaszczuk, and N. E. Crone, “Dynamics of event-related causality in brain electrical activity,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(10), 1170–1192 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. De Vico Fallani, L. Astolfi, F. Cincotti, D. Mattia, M. G. Marciani, S. Salinari, J. Kurths, S. Gao, A. Cichocki, A. Colosimo, and F. Babiloni, “Cortical functional connectivity networks in normal and spinal cord injured patients: Evaluation by graph analysis,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 28(12), 1334–1346 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. A. Franceschini, D. K. Joseph, T. J. Huppert, S. G. Diamond, and D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054007 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lee, M. Lee, D. Koh, B. M. Kim, and J. H. Choi, “Cerebral hemodynamic responses to seizure in the mouse brain: A simultaneous NIRS-EEG study,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Neurophysiol. (1)

G. Pfurtscheller and C. Andrew, “Event-Related changes of band power and coherence: methodology and interpretation,” J. Clin. Neurophysiol. 16(6), 512–519 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

S. Chakrabarti and K. D. Alloway, “Differential origin of projections from SI barrel cortex to the whisker representations in SII and MI,” J. Comp. Neurol. 498(5), 624–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Econom. (1)

J. Geweke, R. Meese, and W. Dent, “Comparing Alternative Tests of Causality in Temporal Systems - Analytic Results and Experimental-Evidence,” J. Econom. 21(2), 161–194 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods (2)

W. Hesse, E. Möller, M. Arnold, and B. Schack, “The use of time-variant EEG Granger causality for inspecting directed interdependencies of neural assemblies,” J. Neurosci. Methods 124(1), 27–44 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Crespi, A. Bandera, M. Donini, C. Heidbreder, and L. Rovati, “Non-invasive in vivo infrared laser spectroscopy to analyse endogenous oxy-haemoglobin, deoxy-haemoglobin, and blood volume in the rat CNS,” J. Neurosci. Methods 145(1-2), 11–22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

B. Abler, A. Roebroeck, R. Goebel, A. Höse, C. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, G. Hole, and H. Walter, “Investigating directed influences between activated brain areas in a motor-response task using fMRI,” Magn. Reson. Imaging 24(2), 181–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Neurosci. (1)

L. Petreanu, D. Huber, A. Sobczyk, and K. Svoboda, “Channelrhodopsin-2-assisted circuit mapping of long-range callosal projections,” Nat. Neurosci. 10(5), 663–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Network-Comp Neural. (1)

A. K. Seth, ““Causal connectivity of evolved neural networks during behavior,” Network-Comp Neural. 16(1), 35–54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neurocrit. Care (1)

S. Muehlschlegel, J. Selb, M. Patel, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, D. A. Boas, and L. H. Schwamm, “Feasibility of NIRS in the neurointensive care unit: a pilot study in stroke using physiological oscillations,” Neurocrit. Care 11(2), 288–295 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (12)

L. Ding, G. A. Worrell, T. D. Lagerlund, and B. He, “Ictal source analysis: localization and imaging of causal interactions in humans,” Neuroimage 34(2), 575–586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Austin, A. P. Gibson, G. Branco, R. M. Yusof, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three dimensional optical imaging of blood volume and oxygenation in the neonatal brain,” Neuroimage 31(4), 1426–1433 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sato, E. A. Junior, D. Y. Takahashi, M. de Maria Felix, M. J. Brammer, and P. A. Morettin, “A method to produce evolving functional connectivity maps during the course of an fMRI experiment using wavelet-based time-varying Granger causality,” Neuroimage 31(1), 187–196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Gow, J. A. Segawa, S. P. Ahlfors, and F. H. Lin, “Lexical influences on speech perception: a Granger causality analysis of MEG and EEG source estimates,” Neuroimage 43(3), 614–623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Friston, L. Harrison, and W. Penny, “Dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 19(4), 1273–1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lee, K. Friston, and B. Horwitz, “Large-scale neural models and dynamic causal modelling,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1243–1254 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. David, S. J. Kiebel, L. M. Harrison, J. Mattout, J. M. Kilner, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modeling of evoked responses in EEG and MEG,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1255–1272 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Kiebel, O. David, and K. J. Friston, “Dynamic causal modelling of evoked responses in EEG/MEG with lead field parameterization,” Neuroimage 30(4), 1273–1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sepulcre, J. C. Masdeu, M. A. Pastor, J. Goñi, C. Barbosa, B. Bejarano, and P. Villoslada, “Brain pathways of verbal working memory: a lesion-function correlation study,” Neuroimage 47(2), 773–778 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Ye, S. Tak, K. E. Jang, J. Jung, and J. Jang, “NIRS-SPM: statistical parametric mapping for near-infrared spectroscopy,” Neuroimage 44(2), 428–447 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Huppert, R. D. Hoge, S. G. Diamond, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, “A temporal comparison of BOLD, ASL, and NIRS hemodynamic responses to motor stimuli in adult humans,” Neuroimage 29(2), 368–382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Babiloni, F. Cincotti, C. Babiloni, F. Carducci, D. Mattia, L. Astolfi, A. Basilisco, P. M. Rossini, L. Ding, Y. Ni, J. Cheng, K. Christine, J. Sweeney, and B. He, “Estimation of the cortical functional connectivity with the multimodal integration of high-resolution EEG and fMRI data by directed transfer function,” Neuroimage 24(1), 118–131 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuron (1)

C. C. Petersen, “The functional organization of the barrel cortex,” Neuron 56(2), 339–355 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (1)

N. Shimoda, K. Takeda, I. Imai, J. Kaneko, and H. Kato, “Cerebral laterality differences in handedness: a mental rotation study with NIRS,” Neurosci. Lett. 430(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33(12), 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. Schreiber, “Measuring information transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(2), 461–464 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Nolte, A. Ziehe, V. V. Nikulin, A. Schlögl, N. Krämer, T. Brismar, and K. R. Müller, “Robustly estimating the flow direction of information in complex physical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(23), 234101 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Rosenblum, A. S. Pikovsky, and J. Kurths, “Phase synchronization of chaotic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(11), 1804–1807 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica D (1)

F. Mormann, K. Lehnertz, P. David, and C. E. Elger, “Mean phase coherence as a measure for phase synchronization and its application to the EEG of epilepsy patients,” Physica D 144(3-4), 358–369 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy (1)

A. Gallagher, M. Lassonde, D. Bastien, P. Vannasing, F. Lesage, C. Grova, A. Bouthillier, L. Carmant, F. Lepore, R. Beland, and D. K. Nguyen, ““Non-invasive pre-surgical investigation of a 10 year-old epileptic boy using simultaneous EEG-NIRS,” Seizure-Eur, J. Epilepsy 17, 576–582 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process. (1)

A. Schlogl, “A comparison of multivariate autoregressive estimators,” Signal Process. 86(9), 2426–2429 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trends Neurosci. (1)

C. I. Moore, S. B. Nelson, and M. Sur, “Dynamics of neuronal processing in rat somatosensory cortex,” Trends Neurosci. 22(11), 513–520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Aydore, and M. Mihcak, “On Temporal Connectivity of PFC Via Gauss-Markov Modeling of fNIRS Signals,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2009).

G. Paxinos, and C. Watson, The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates (Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam; Boston, 2005).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Incomplete Beta Function, Student's Distribution, F-Distribution, Cumulative Binomial Distribution (Cambridge University Press, 1993).

J. Hamilton, Covariance-Stationary Vector Processes (Princeton University Press, 1994).

C. W. J. Granger, “Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods,” Econometrica 37, 414-& (1969).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Arrangement of optical fibers (L1, L2, L3 are the locations of the source fibers and D represents a detector). M1, S1 and S2 represent primary motor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and secondary somatosensory cortex, respectively. (b) Picture of the actual experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The paradigm of electrical stimulation. Pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate lasted for 10 s and the resting time was set for 90 s. This process was repeated approximately 40-60 times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative plots of changes in deoxyhemoglobin concentration at the (a) S1, (b) S2, and (c) M1 locations on the right hemisphere of a rat brain. 10 Hz pulse trains lasted for 10 s. The negative offset of all the signals is part of the physiological noise, which is not meaningful.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The averaged Granger causality (probability) values of seven rats. The strength of the Granger causality is presented using the probability values, arrow colors, and arrow thicknesses. Smaller probability values, thicker arrows, and darker colors represent stronger causality along the direction. Each p-value was averaged from 40 – 60 trials.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ O D λ = ln I F i n a l I I n i t i a l = ( ε H b O 2 λ Δ [ H b O 2 ] + ε H b r λ Δ [ H b r ] ) B λ L ,
Δ [ H b O 2 ] = ε H b r λ 1 Δ O D λ 2 B λ 2 ε H b r λ 2 Δ O D λ 1 B λ 1 ( ε H b r λ 1 ε H b O 2 λ 2 ε H b r λ 2 ε H b O 2 λ 1 ) L ,
Δ [ H b r ] = ε H b O 2 λ 2 Δ O D λ 1 B λ 1 ε H b O 2 λ 1 Δ O D λ 2 B λ 2 ( ε H b r λ 1 ε H b O 2 λ 2 ε H b r λ 2 ε H b O 2 λ 1 ) L .
x t = α 0 + p = 1 M α p x t p + u t ,
x t = α 0 + p = 1 M α p x t p + p = 1 M β p y t p + w t ,
F ( R S S 0 R S S 1 ) / M R S S 1 / ( T 2 M 1 ) ,
R S S 0 = t = 1 T u t 2   and   R S S 1 = t = 1 T w t 2 ,

Metrics