Abstract

A plasmonic lens with metallic chirped circular nanoslits corrugated on Au film supported on quartz substrate for the purpose of superfocusing was put forth and fabricated by means of focused ion beam direct milling technique. Topography of the lens was imaged using an atomic force microscope. After that a near-field scanning optical microscope was employed for optical characterization of focusing performance of the lens. Our experimental results verify the focusing performance and further demonstrate that they are in agreement with the theoretical calculation results. Focusing performance is significantly improved in comparison to that of the non-chirped lens. The lenses are possible to be used for the applications of bioimaging, detection, and inspection in submicron scale resolution.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
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  6. D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3503–3511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. Zhou, and A. K. Asundi, “Effect of polarization on symmetry of focal spot of a plasmonic lens,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8137–8143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, “Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3503–3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Li, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, and C. P. Zhang, “Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture in layered films consisting of metal and dielectric,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9071–9077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asundi, A. K.

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Businaro, L.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. K.

Chang, C.-K.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Das, G.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J. G

F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, F.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Fabrizio, E.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Du, C.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, F. M.

F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuan, C. H.

Lee, B.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

Lee, C.-K.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. B.

Lim, E. N. L.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, L. E. N.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Z.

Lin, D.-Z.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. W.

Lin, M.-W.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Liu, J.-M.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maksymov, I.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patrini, M.

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D. L.

Yeh, C. S.

Yeh, C.-S.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. T.

Yeh, J.-T.

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. P.

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N.

F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

J. Wang, W. Zhou, and A. K. Asundi, “Effect of polarization on symmetry of focal spot of a plasmonic lens,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8137–8143 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

F. M. Huang, N. Zheludev, and F. J. G de Abajo, “Focusing of light by a nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 091119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Chang, D.-Z. Lin, C.-S. Yeh, C.-K. Lee, Y.-C. Chang, M.-W. Lin, J.-T. Yeh, and J.-M. Liu, “Experimental analysis of surface plasmon behavior in metallic circular slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, Y. Lim, H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical beam focusing by a single subwavelength metal slit surrounded by chirped dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, H. Kim, Y. Lim, and B. Lee, “Off-axis directional beaming of optical field diffracted by a single subwavelength metal slit with asymmetric dielectric surface gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, E. N. L. Lim, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Plasmonic microzone plate: superfocusing at visible regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun and H. K. Kim, “Refractive transmission of light and beam shaping with metallic nano-optic lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jia, H. Shi, J. Li, Y. Fu, C. Du, and M. Gu, “Near-field visualization of focal depth modulation by step corrugated plasmonic slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 151912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

F. De Angelis, M. Patrini, G. Das, I. Maksymov, M. Galli, L. Businaro, L. C. Andreani, and E. Di Fabrizio, “A hybrid plasmonic-photonic nanodevice for label-free detection of a few molecules,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2321–2327 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens,” Nano Lett. 5(9), 1726–1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1399–1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. Du, X. Luo, Z. Zhao, X. Dong, H. Shi, and C. T. Wang, “Geometrical characterization issues of plasmonic nanostructures with depth-tuned grooves for beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 108001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

FDTD Solution, commercial professional software coded by Lumerical Inc.: http://www.lumerical.com .

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D. Palik (Academic, San Diego, 1998), Chap. 11, p 358.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the sandwiched plasmonic lens with chirped circular slits corrugated on Au film. Width of the outmost circular slit is 95 nm. Lens dimension (outer diameter) is 12 μm. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the lens fabricated using focused ion beam milling technique. The scale bar is 4 μm. (c) AFM measurement result: topography of the fabricated lens. (d) NSOM characterization result of the lens: 2D E-field intensity distribution at propagation distance of 2.5 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

NSOM mapping of E-field intensity distribution at x-y plane at propagation distance of (a) 0.5 μm; (b) 1 μm; (c) 2.5 μm, and (d) 5μm. The arrow in (b) indicates polarization direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the calculated and measured E-field intensity profiles probed at x-z plane at propagation distance of (a) 0.5 μm; (b) 1 μm; (c) 2.5 μm, and (d) 5μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the calculated and measured results of E-field intensity vs. propagation distance z, and FWHM, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured 3D E-field intensity distribution of the plasmonic lens vs. lateral x and propagation distance z using NSOM. The figure was replotted using the NSOM probed data.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Slit width of the rings in the order from inner to outer (designed f=1μm) at λ=532nm

Equations (1)

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I = α i = 1 N C I i 0 I S P 4 r i λ S P e ( r i / l S P )

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