Abstract

We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (p<0.001, paired 2-sided Student’s t-test, n = 48). NIR AF imaging under polarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 279–290 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Y. Qu, J. Hua, and Z. Huang, “Correction of geometrical effects on fluorescence imaging of tissue,” Opt. Commun. 176, 319–326 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Anandasabapathy, “Endoscopic imaging: emerging optical techniques for the detection of colorectal neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 24(1), 64–69 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, A. Hoffman, and M. F. Neurath, “Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods,” Endoscopy 38(1), 5–10 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. D. Wang and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Autofluorescence imaging: have we finally seen the light?” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 686–688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. E. Brown and B. P. Saunders, “Advances in colonic imaging: technical improvements in colonoscopy,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(8), 785–792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Qu, J. Hua, and Z. Huang, “Correction of geometrical effects on fluorescence imaging of tissue,” Opt. Commun. 176, 319–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aihara, H.

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alajlan, A.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alterini, R.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

S. Anandasabapathy, “Endoscopic imaging: emerging optical techniques for the detection of colorectal neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 24(1), 64–69 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreoli, F.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basile, V.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, G. J. E.

G. J. E. Brown and B. P. Saunders, “Advances in colonic imaging: technical improvements in colonoscopy,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(8), 785–792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Chia, K. S.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Deutsch, T. F.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, W.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Naggar, A. K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Ferrante, R. J.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Flotte, T. J.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedland, S.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frisoli, J. K.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusi, F.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillen, D.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giustozzi, G.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamzavi, I.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hao, Y.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

R. Kiesslich, A. Hoffman, and M. F. Neurath, “Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods,” Endoscopy 38(1), 5–10 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

J. Y. Qu, J. Hua, and Z. Huang, “Correction of geometrical effects on fluorescence imaging of tissue,” Opt. Commun. 176, 319–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. Y. Qu, J. Hua, and Z. Huang, “Correction of geometrical effects on fluorescence imaging of tissue,” Opt. Commun. 176, 319–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikegami, M.

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, J. T.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaltenbach, T.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessler, W. R.

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

R. Kiesslich, A. Hoffman, and M. F. Neurath, “Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods,” Endoscopy 38(1), 5–10 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbelik, M.

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowall, N. W.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lathi, D.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lee, J.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeRiche, J. C.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, H.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mah, J. T. L.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maheshwari, A.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, S.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCallum, A. L.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKee, A. C.

E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, R. J. Ferrante, A. C. McKee, D. Lathi, and N. W. Kowall, “Near-infrared fluorescence spectroscopy detects Alzheimer’s disease in vitro,” Photochem. Photobiol. 70(2), 236–242 (1999).
[PubMed]

McLean, D. I.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Molloy, R. G.

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monici, M.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, A. Hoffman, and M. F. Neurath, “Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods,” Endoscopy 38(1), 5–10 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, “Autofluorescence of normal and malignant bronchial tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11(2), 99–105 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantalone, D.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petras, R. E.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Qu, J. Y.

J. Y. Qu, J. Hua, and Z. Huang, “Correction of geometrical effects on fluorescence imaging of tissue,” Opt. Commun. 176, 319–326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rava, R. P.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Richter, J. M.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigacci, L.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roblyer, D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romano, G.

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouse, R. V.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankaranarayanan, R.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankila, R.

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, B. P.

G. J. E. Brown and B. P. Saunders, “Advances in colonic imaging: technical improvements in colonoscopy,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(8), 785–792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schomacker, K. T.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, and T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(1), 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivak, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Sivak, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53(6), 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

Soetikno, R. M.

R. M. Soetikno, T. Kaltenbach, R. V. Rouse, W. Park, A. Maheshwari, T. Sato, S. Matsui, and S. Friedland, “Prevalence of nonpolypoid (flat and depressed) colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic and symptomatic adults,” JAMA 299(9), 1027–1035 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumiyama, K.

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, E.

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Triadafilopoulos, G.

T. D. Wang and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Autofluorescence imaging: have we finally seen the light?” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 686–688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

R. Drezek, K. Sokolov, U. Utzinger, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Understanding the contributions of NADH and collagen to cervical tissue fluorescence spectra: modeling, measurements, and implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6(4), 385–396 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

T. D. Wang and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Autofluorescence imaging: have we finally seen the light?” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 686–688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang and L. V. Wang, “Propagation of polarized light in birefringent turbid media: a Monte Carlo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 279–290 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

D. Roblyer, R. Richards-Kortum, K. Sokolov, A. K. El-Naggar, M. D. Williams, C. Kurachi, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Multispectral optical imaging device for in vivo detection of oral neoplasia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024019 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

X. Han, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, and H. Zeng, “Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of cutaneous melanins and human skin in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Zeng, I. Hamzavi, A. Alajlan, E. Tan, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Cutaneous melanin exhibiting fluorescence emission under near-infrared light excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34010 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, H. Lui, D. I. McLean, M. Korbelik, and H. Zeng, “Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(5), 1219–1226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Zheng, W.

Z. Huang, W. Zheng, S. Xie, R. Chen, H. Zeng, D. I. McLean, and H. Lui, “Laser-induced autofluorescence microscopy of normal and tumor human colonic tissue,” Int. J. Oncol. 24(1), 59–63 (2004).
[PubMed]

Zonios, G. I.

G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, and M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43(2), 113–122 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin. (1)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. Hao, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2009,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 59(4), 225–249 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

D. Pantalone, F. Andreoli, F. Fusi, V. Basile, G. Romano, G. Giustozzi, L. Rigacci, R. Alterini, and M. Monici, “Multispectral imaging autofluorescence microscopy in colonic and gastric cancer metastatic lymph nodes,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5(2), 230–236 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. (1)

S. Anandasabapathy, “Endoscopic imaging: emerging optical techniques for the detection of colorectal neoplasia,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 24(1), 64–69 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

W. Du, J. T. L. Mah, J. Lee, R. Sankila, R. Sankaranarayanan, and K. S. Chia, “Incidence and survival of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colorectum: a population-based study from an Asian country,” Dis. Colon Rectum 47(1), 78–85 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

R. Kiesslich, A. Hoffman, and M. F. Neurath, “Colonoscopy, tumors, and inflammatory bowel disease - new diagnostic methods,” Endoscopy 38(1), 5–10 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

G. J. E. Brown and B. P. Saunders, “Advances in colonic imaging: technical improvements in colonoscopy,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17(8), 785–792 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (4)

T. D. Wang and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Autofluorescence imaging: have we finally seen the light?” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61(6), 686–688 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. McCallum, J. T. Jenkins, D. Gillen, and R. G. Molloy, “Evaluation of autofluorescence colonoscopy for the detection and diagnosis of colonic polyps,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 283–290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Kessler, “Autofluorescence colonoscopy: a green light on the long road to “real-time” histology,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(2), 291–293 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aihara, K. Sumiyama, S. Saito, H. Tajiri, and M. Ikegami, “Numerical analysis of the autofluorescence intensity of neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions by using a novel videoendoscopy system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 69(3 Pt 2), 726–733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

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