Abstract

The feasibility of identifying cancer cells by measuring the refractive index (RI) distribution across a single live cell with ultrahigh resolution full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) is presented. The FF-OCM is utilized to quantify integral RI distributions of unmodified cells without any cell treatments and used as a biophysical indicator for diagnosing cell malignancy. Firstly, the physical thickness distribution of the cell adherent to a culture dish is measured by taking a series of 0.6 µm resolved en-face tomograms. Subsequently, from the en-face image of the bottom surface of the cell or the top surface of the dish, the phase gain image of the cell is extracted. Then, from these two measurements the axially averaged RI map of the cell is extracted. The implemented FF-OCM system had a 0.8 µm axial resolution and the phase measurement sensitivity of the system was around 124 mrad. With the system, RI maps of several living cell lines of normal and cancer cells were constructed and quantitatively analyzed. The experiments showed that cancer cells had higher RI than normal ones. This approach using the FF-OCM has significant potential for cancer diagnosis and dynamic cell analysis as in situ label-free biophysical assay.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S.-A. Kim, S.-M. Kwon, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-G. Ahn, “The antitumor effect of PLK1 and HSF1 double knockdown on human oral carcinoma cells,” Int. J. Oncol. 36(4), 867–872 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamauchi, H. Iwai, M. Miwa, and Y. Yamashita, “Low-coherent quantitative phase microscope for nanometer-scale measurement of living cells morphology,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12227–12238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

W. J. Choi, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, and D.-S. Ko, “Realization of 3-D Topographic and Tomographic Images with Ultrahigh-resolution Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(1), 18–25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suresh, “Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells,” Acta Biomater. 3(4), 413–438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. J. Rosenbluth, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Force Microscopy of Nonadherent Cells: A Comparison of Leukemia Cell Deformability,” Biophys. J. 90(8), 2994–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

G. Zhang, M. Long, Z.-Z. Wu, and W.-Q. Yu, “Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 8(2), 243–246 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

F. Lanni, A. S. Waggoner, and D. L. Taylor, “Structural organization of interphase 3T3 fibroblasts studied by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 100(4), 1091–1102 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

1953 (1)

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.-G.

S.-A. Kim, S.-M. Kwon, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-G. Ahn, “The antitumor effect of PLK1 and HSF1 double knockdown on human oral carcinoma cells,” Int. J. Oncol. 36(4), 867–872 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ayi, T. C.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2399–2401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer, “Refractometry and interferometry of living cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47(6), 545–556 (1957).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beil, M.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bellair, C. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilby, C.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, C.

Cardenas, R.

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. P.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L. K.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. S.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, and D.-S. Ko, “Realization of 3-D Topographic and Tomographic Images with Ultrahigh-resolution Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(1), 18–25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curl, C. L.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dao, M.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2399–2401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Ebert, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, H. M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Iwai, C. Fang-Yen, G. Popescu, A. Wax, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Quantitative phase imaging using actively stabilized phase-shifting low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2399–2401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. A.

M. J. Rosenbluth, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Force Microscopy of Nonadherent Cells: A Comparison of Leukemia Cell Deformability,” Biophys. J. 90(8), 2994–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, D.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

Guck, J.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J. Z.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harris, P. J.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosseini, H. M. M.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Ishimaru, I.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwai, H.

Kabani, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.-W.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Käs, J.

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-K.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-W.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-A.

S.-A. Kim, S.-M. Kwon, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-G. Ahn, “The antitumor effect of PLK1 and HSF1 double knockdown on human oral carcinoma cells,” Int. J. Oncol. 36(4), 867–872 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-G.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kline, E.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, D.-S.

Koch, D.

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, M.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuriyama, S.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-M.

S.-A. Kim, S.-M. Kwon, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-G. Ahn, “The antitumor effect of PLK1 and HSF1 double knockdown on human oral carcinoma cells,” Int. J. Oncol. 36(4), 867–872 (2010).
[PubMed]

Laidler, P.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, W. A.

M. J. Rosenbluth, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Force Microscopy of Nonadherent Cells: A Comparison of Leukemia Cell Deformability,” Biophys. J. 90(8), 2994–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanni, F.

F. Lanni, A. S. Waggoner, and D. L. Taylor, “Structural organization of interphase 3T3 fibroblasts studied by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 100(4), 1091–1102 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecaque, R.

Lee, B. H.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, and D.-S. Ko, “Realization of 3-D Topographic and Tomographic Images with Ultrahigh-resolution Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(1), 18–25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-W.

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-B.

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lekka, M.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lekki, J.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenz, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, H. S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X. J.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. T.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, E.-H.

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, B.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. Q.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Long, M.

G. Zhang, M. Long, Z.-Z. Wu, and W.-Q. Yu, “Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 8(2), 243–246 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lue, N.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2759–2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maeda, N.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masaki, T.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGillican, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGilligan, J. A.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micoulet, A.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. P.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

Moneron, G.

Moon, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M. G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Na, J.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, and D.-S. Ko, “Realization of 3-D Topographic and Tomographic Images with Ultrahigh-resolution Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(1), 18–25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. H.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, K.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-C.

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, A.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romeyke, M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbluth, M. J.

M. J. Rosenbluth, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Force Microscopy of Nonadherent Cells: A Comparison of Leukemia Cell Deformability,” Biophys. J. 90(8), 2994–3003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, K. F. A.

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. Y.

J. Na, W. J. Choi, H. Y. Choi, S. Y. Ryu, E. S. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Thickness and Refractive Index Measurements by Full-Field Optical Coherence Microscopy,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(12), 1996–1997 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Choi, J. Na, S. Y. Ryu, B. H. Lee, and D.-S. Ko, “Realization of 3-D Topographic and Tomographic Images with Ultrahigh-resolution Full-field Optical Coherence Tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 11(1), 18–25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schinkinger, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiler, M.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seufferlein, T.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shapshay, S.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, C. K.

S. Park, D. Koch, R. Cardenas, J. Käs, and C. K. Shih, “Cell motility and local viscoelasticity of fibroblasts,” Biophys. J. 89(6), 4330–4342 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soma, T.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, W. Z.

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spatz, J.

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stachura, Z.

M. Lekka, P. Laidler, D. Gil, J. Lekki, Z. Stachura, and A. Z. Hrynkiewicz, “Elasticity of normal and cancerous human bladder cells studied by scanning force microscopy,” Eur. Biophys. J. 28(4), 312–316 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, A. G.

C. L. Curl, C. J. Bellair, T. Harris, B. E. Allman, P. J. Harris, A. G. Stewart, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and L. M. D. Delbridge, “Refractive index measurement in viable cells using quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy and confocal microscopy,” Cytometry A 65A(1), 88–92 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

S. Suresh, “Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells,” Acta Biomater. 3(4), 413–438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takegawa, K.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, N.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tano, Y.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, D. L.

F. Lanni, A. S. Waggoner, and D. L. Taylor, “Structural organization of interphase 3T3 fibroblasts studied by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 100(4), 1091–1102 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, S.

R. Barer, K. F. A. Ross, and S. Tkaczyk, “Refractometry of living cells,” Nature 171(4356), 720–724 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulvick, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vabre, L.

Valdez, T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waggoner, A. S.

F. Lanni, A. S. Waggoner, and D. L. Taylor, “Structural organization of interphase 3T3 fibroblasts studied by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy,” J. Cell Biol. 100(4), 1091–1102 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Wei, P.-K.

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wottawah, F.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.-Z.

G. Zhang, M. Long, Z.-Z. Wu, and W.-Q. Yu, “Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 8(2), 243–246 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

Yamauchi, T.

Yap, P. H.

X. J. Liang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, T. C. Ayi, and P. H. Yap, “Determining refractive index of single living cell using an integrated microchip,” Sens. Actuator A 133(2), 349–354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaqoob, Z.

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, Z. Yaqoob, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Live cell refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy and confocal reflectance microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(47), 13327–13330 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasokawa, T.

T. Yasokawa, I. Ishimaru, M. Kondo, S. Kuriyama, T. Masaki, K. Takegawa, and N. Tanaka, “A Method for Measuring the Three-Dimensional Refractive-Index Distribution of Single Cells Using Proximal Two-Beam Optical Tweezers and a Phase-Shifting Mach-Zehnder Interferometer,” Opt. Rev. 14(4), 161–164 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.-H.

Y.-H. Moon, J.-H. Park, S.-A. Kim, J.-B. Lee, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy with hexenyl ester of 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Head Neck 32(9), 1136–1142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-A. Kim, S.-M. Kwon, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-G. Ahn, “The antitumor effect of PLK1 and HSF1 double knockdown on human oral carcinoma cells,” Int. J. Oncol. 36(4), 867–872 (2010).
[PubMed]

S.-A. Kim, H.-W. Kim, D.-K. Kim, S.-G. Kim, J.-C. Park, D.-W. Kang, S.-W. Kim, S.-G. Ahn, and J.-H. Yoon, “Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells,” Cancer Lett. 235(1), 53–59 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.-Q.

G. Zhang, M. Long, Z.-Z. Wu, and W.-Q. Yu, “Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 8(2), 243–246 (2002).
[PubMed]

Yumikake, K.

M. Akiba, N. Maeda, K. Yumikake, T. Soma, K. Nishida, Y. Tano, and K. P. Chan, “Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of human donor cornea using full-field optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, M. Long, Z.-Z. Wu, and W.-Q. Yu, “Mechanical properties of hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” World J. Gastroenterol. 8(2), 243–246 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. M.

L. K. Chin, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, X. M. Zhang, J. H. Ng, J. Z. Hao, and S. Takahashi, “Differential single living cell refractometry using grating resonant cavity with optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zonios, G.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, and T. McGillican, “Detection of preinvasive cancer cells,” Nature 406(6791), 35–36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Biomater. (2)

S. Suresh, J. Spatz, J. P. Mills, A. Micoulet, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, M. Beil, and T. Seufferlein, “Connections between single-cell biomechanics and human disease states: gastrointestinal cancer and malaria,” Acta Biomater. 1(1), 15–30 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Suresh, “Biomechanics and biophysics of cancer cells,” Acta Biomater. 3(4), 413–438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J.-Y. Lee, C.-W. Lee, E.-H. Lin, and P.-K. Wei, “Single live cell refractometer using nanoparticle coated fiber tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 173110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Z. Song, X. M. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, C. S. Lim, P. H. Yap, and H. M. M. Hosseini, “Refractive index measurement of single living cells using on-chip Fabry-Perot cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 203901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the FF-OCM system, BS: beam splitter; MO: microscope objective; NDF: neutral density filter; WG: window glass; AM: angled mirror; PZT: piezo-electric transducer; RM: reference mirror; L: lens; CCD: charge-coupled device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The phase image of the target pattern (group 6) measured with FF-OCM, (b) the surface profile of the same sample, (c) (black and solid) the line image of the surface profile (taken along the red dotted line in (b)) and (red and dotted) the image taken by AFM, (d) the time-elapsed phase (closed circles) and height (open circles) measurements were made at a point.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) En-face (XY) FF-OCM image (in log scale), (b) contour image of cell height profile, (c) phase image, and (d) quantitative RI map of a RK3E cell. In (a), white scale bar is 10 µm; S, cell surface; N, nucleus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) En-face (XY) FF-OCM image (in log scale), (b) contour image of cell height profile, (c) phase image, and (d) quantitative RI map of a RK3E-ras cell. White scale bar in (a) is 10 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of the RIs measured by every pixels of the CCD for (a) RK3E and (b) RK3E-ras cells.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of RIs measured with normal and cancer cells for two cell line groups. For each cell type, five different single cells were measured independently.

Equations (3)

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Δ ϕ ( x , y ) = 2 2 π λ 0 ( R I c e l l ( x , y ) R I m e d i u m ( x , y ) ) t ( x , y ) ,
R I c e l l ( x , y ) = λ 0 4 π Δ ϕ ( x , y ) t ( x , y ) + R I m e d i u m ( x , y ) .
δ Δ R I Δ R I = δ t t + δ Δ ϕ Δ ϕ .

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