Abstract

A novel automated boundary segmentation algorithm is proposed for fast and reliable quantification of nine intra-retinal boundaries in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The algorithm employs a two-step segmentation schema based on gradient information in dual scales, utilizing local and complementary global gradient information simultaneously. A shortest path search is applied to optimize the edge selection. The segmentation algorithm was validated with independent manual segmentation and a reproducibility study. It demonstrates high accuracy and reproducibility in segmenting normal 3D OCT volumes. The execution time is about 16 seconds per volume (480x512x128 voxels). The algorithm shows potential for quantifying images from diseased retinas as well.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. Cabrera DeBuc and G. M. Somfai, “Early detection of retinal thickness changes in diabetes using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Med. Sci. Monit. 16(3), MT15–MT21 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Garas, P. Vargha, and G. Holló, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurement with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph,” Ophthalmology 117(4), 738–746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kajić, B. Považay, B. Hermann, B. Hofer, D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin, and W. Drexler, “Robust segmentation of intraretinal layers in the normal human fovea using a novel statistical model based on texture and shape analysis,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14730–14744 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (9)

T. Fabritius, S. Makita, M. Miura, R. Myllylä, and Y. Yasuno, “Automated segmentation of the macula by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15659–15669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mishra, A. Wong, K. Bizheva, and D. A. Clausi, “Intra-retinal layer segmentation in optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23719–23728 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Ahlers, B. Baumann, S. Michels, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16410–16422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Baroni, P. Fortunato, and A. La Torre, “Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(4), 432–441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shahidi, Z. Wang, and R. Zelkha, “Quantitative thickness measurement of retinal layers imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(6), 1056–1061 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. Chan, B. Cense, B. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9480–9491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fecher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaizt, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abràmoff, M. D.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlers, C.

Akkin, T.

Arthur, S. N.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Bandello, F.

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baroni, M.

M. Baroni, P. Fortunato, and A. La Torre, “Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(4), 432–441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, B. T.

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birch, D. G.

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Bouma, B.

Bowd, C.

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruce, A.

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, T. L.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera DeBuc, D.

D. Cabrera DeBuc and G. M. Somfai, “Early detection of retinal thickness changes in diabetes using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Med. Sci. Monit. 16(3), MT15–MT21 (2010).
[PubMed]

Cabrera Fernández, D.

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, R.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Cheung, C.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
[PubMed]

Cho, J.

D. C. Hood, J. Cho, A. S. Raza, B. A. Dale, and W. Min, “Reliability of a computer-aided, manual procedure for segmenting OCT scans,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Cho, J. S.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chopra, V.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clausi, D. A.

Dale, B. A.

D. C. Hood, J. Cho, A. S. Raza, B. A. Dale, and W. Min, “Reliability of a computer-aided, manual procedure for segmenting OCT scans,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).
[PubMed]

de Boer, J.

De Moraes, G. V.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Del Borrello, M.

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devries, J. H.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dharni, P.

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolejsi, M.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Elzaizt, S. Y.

A. F. Fecher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaizt, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fabritius, T.

Fecher, A. F.

A. F. Fecher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaizt, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortunato, P.

M. Baroni, P. Fortunato, and A. La Torre, “Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(4), 432–441 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fortune, B.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garas, A.

A. Garas, P. Vargha, and G. Holló, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurement with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph,” Ophthalmology 117(4), 738–746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvin, M.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garvin, M. K.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

Ghadiali, Q.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

González-García, A. O.

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Holló, G.

A. Garas, P. Vargha, and G. Holló, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurement with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph,” Ophthalmology 117(4), 738–746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, J. Cho, A. S. Raza, B. A. Dale, and W. Min, “Reliability of a computer-aided, manual procedure for segmenting OCT scans,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Huang, D.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isola, M.

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
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Joo, C.

Kajic, V.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fecher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaizt, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Kardon, R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P. H.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koozekanani, D.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

La Torre, A.

M. Baroni, P. Fortunato, and A. La Torre, “Towards quantitative analysis of retinal features in optical coherence tomography,” Med. Eng. Phys. 29(4), 432–441 (2007).
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Lazow, M. A.

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, C.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
[PubMed]

Li, G.

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liebmann, J. M.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
[PubMed]

Lin, C. E.

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
[PubMed]

Locke, K. G.

D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, A. T.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
[PubMed]

Makita, S.

Marshall, D.

Medeiros, F. A.

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, R. P.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

Min, W.

D. C. Hood, J. Cho, A. S. Raza, B. A. Dale, and W. Min, “Reliability of a computer-aided, manual procedure for segmenting OCT scans,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Mishra, A.

Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

Myllylä, R.

Nassif, N.

Pacey, I. E.

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Pierce, M.

Pircher, M.

Polito, A.

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Cabrera Fernández, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, “Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10200–10216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quellec, G.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raza, A. S.

D. C. Hood, J. Cho, A. S. Raza, B. A. Dale, and W. Min, “Reliability of a computer-aided, manual procedure for segmenting OCT scans,” Optom. Vis. Sci. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ritch, R.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, C.

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosin, P. L.

Russell, S. R.

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salant, J. A.

D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, H. M.

Scally, A. J.

A. Bruce, I. E. Pacey, P. Dharni, A. J. Scally, and B. T. Barrett, “Repeatability and reproducibility of macular thickness measurements using fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Open Ophthalmol J 3(1), 10–14 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlingemann, R. O.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

Schuman, J. S.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

M. Shahidi, Z. Wang, and R. Zelkha, “Quantitative thickness measurement of retinal layers imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(6), 1056–1061 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somfai, G. M.

D. Cabrera DeBuc and G. M. Somfai, “Early detection of retinal thickness changes in diabetes using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Med. Sci. Monit. 16(3), MT15–MT21 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sonka, M.

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, D. M.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G.

van Dijk, H. W.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Velthoven, M. E.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vargha, P.

A. Garas, P. Vargha, and G. Holló, “Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber layer and macular thickness measurement with the RTVue-100 optical coherence tomograph,” Ophthalmology 117(4), 738–746 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varma, R.

O. Tan, V. Chopra, A. T. Lu, J. S. Schuman, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. Varma, and D. Huang, “Detection of macular ganglion cell loss in glaucoma by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2305.e1–2314.e2, (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Tan, G. Li, A. T. Lu, R. Varma, D. Huang, and Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study Group, “Mapping of macular substructures with optical coherence tomography for glaucoma diagnosis,” Ophthalmology 115(6), 949–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verbraak, F. D.

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vizzeri, G.

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. Shahidi, Z. Wang, and R. Zelkha, “Quantitative thickness measurement of retinal layers imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(6), 1056–1061 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinreb, R. N.

A. O. González-García, G. Vizzeri, C. Bowd, F. A. Medeiros, L. M. Zangwill, and R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of RTVue retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disc measurements and agreement with Stratus optical coherence tomography measurements,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(6), 1067–1074.1 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wollstein, G.

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M. Shahidi, Z. Wang, and R. Zelkha, “Quantitative thickness measurement of retinal layers imaged by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 139(6), 1056–1061 (2005).
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Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

A. Polito, M. Del Borrello, M. Isola, N. Zemella, and F. Bandello, “Repeatability and reproducibility of fast macular thickness mapping with stratus optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 123(10), 1330–1337 (2005).
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M. Wang, D. C. Hood, J. S. Cho, Q. Ghadiali, G. V. De Moraes, X. Zhang, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Measurement of local retinal ganglion cell layer thickness in patients with glaucoma using frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 127(7), 875–881 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. Lu, C. Cheung, J. Liu, J. Lim, C. Leung, and T. Wong, “Automated Layer Segmentation of Optical Coherence Tomography Images,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. in press.
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (4)

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abramoff, R. Kardon, S. R. Russell, X. Wu, and M. Sonka, “Intraretinal layer segmentation of macular optical coherence tomography images using optimal 3-D graph search,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(10), 1495–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, X. Wu, S. R. Russell, T. L. Burns, and M. Sonka, “Automated 3-D intraretinal layer segmentation of macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 28(9), 1436–1447 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Quellec, K. Lee, M. Dolejsi, M. K. Garvin, M. D. Abràmoff, and M. Sonka, “Three-dimensional analysis of retinal layer texture: identification of fluid-filled regions in SD-OCT of the macula,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(6), 1321–1330 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Koozekanani, K. Boyer, and C. Roberts, “Retinal thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography using a Markov boundary model,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 20(9), 900–916 (2001).
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D. C. Hood, C. E. Lin, M. A. Lazow, K. G. Locke, X. Zhang, and D. G. Birch, “Thickness of receptor and post-receptor retinal layers in patients with retinitis pigmentosa measured with frequency-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(5), 2328–2336 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46(6), 2012–2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. van Dijk, P. H. Kok, M. Garvin, M. Sonka, J. H. Devries, R. P. Michels, M. E. van Velthoven, R. O. Schlingemann, F. D. Verbraak, and M. D. Abràmoff, “Selective loss of inner retinal layer thickness in type 1 diabetic patients with minimal diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(7), 3404–3409 (2009).
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D. C. Hood, B. Fortune, S. N. Arthur, D. Xing, J. A. Salant, R. Ritch, and J. M. Liebmann, “Blood vessel contributions to retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profiles measured with optical coherence tomography,” J. Glaucoma 17(7), 519–528 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

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D. Cabrera DeBuc and G. M. Somfai, “Early detection of retinal thickness changes in diabetes using Optical Coherence Tomography,” Med. Sci. Monit. 16(3), MT15–MT21 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of nine intra-retinal boundaries from top to bottom: boundary 1 ILM, boundary 2 NFL/GCL, boundary 3 GCL/IPL, boundary 4 IPL/INL, boundary 5 INL/OPL, boundary 6 ELM, boundary 7 IS/OS, boundary 8 OS/RPE and boundary 9 BM/Choroid.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the complementary gradient information used for segmentation of the IPL/INL boundary. The sigma of the Gaussian kernel used in the Canny edge detector was 2, while the sigma of Gaussian kernel used in the axial gradient calculation was 4. The thresholds of the Canny edge detector were [0.1 0.55 0.8].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration of nine boundary segmentation flow. Panel a is the original OCT image acquired using Topcon 3D OCT-1000 equipment. The image is first aligned as shown in b and the ILM and IS/OS are detected as in c; d, e and f illustrate the BM/Choroid, OS/RPE, IPL/INL, NFL/GCL, GCL/IPL, INL/OPL and ELM are detected in order; in the end, all nine boundaries are converted back to the original OCT image coordinates as shown in g.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of a normal 3D vertical scan volume. NFL, GCC (from ILM to IPL/INL) and total retinal thickness maps (from ILM to OS/RPE) covered 5x5mm2 area, in which three B-scans (the 32nd, 64th and 96th images) of this volume were shown. T: temporal; I: inferior; N: nasal; S: superior.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between manual segmentation (average of four segmenters’ results, yellow lines) and algorithm segmentation (blue lines). The blue arrows illustrate the commonly seen NFL/GCL discrepancy between human segmenters and the automated algorithm. The red arrows indicate the commonly seen IPL/INL difference between human segmenters and the automated algorithm around the fovea.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of segmentations on images with poor quality (panel a) and blood vessel artifacts (panel b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of a 3D horizontal scan volume with drusen. The total thickness map (from ILM to OS/RPE) and the RPE complex thickness map (from OS/RPE to BM/Choroid) cover 5x5mm2 area, in which two B-scans (the 20th and 40th images) of this volume are shown. T: temporal; I: inferior; N: nasal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of a 3D vertical scan volume from a glaucoma patient. NFL and total retinal thickness maps (from ILM to OS/RPE) cover 5x5mm2 area, in which two sample B-scans (the 15th and 47th images) from the volume are shown. T: temporal; I: inferior; N: nasal; S: superior.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Unsigned border position differences (mean ± SD in um) of 38 scans using normal segmentation mode

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Table 2 Signed border position differences (mean ± SD in um) of 38 scans using normal segmentation mode

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Table 3 Unsigned border position differences (mean ± SD in um) of 38 scans using fast segmentation mode

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Table 4 Signed border position differences (mean ± SD in um) of 38 scans using fast segmentation mode

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Table 5 Reproducibility of 43 normal eyes (3 repetitions)

Equations (2)

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C ( i , j ) = w 1 · C a n n y ( i , j ) + w 2 · A x i a l ( i , j ) + w 3 · O t h e r s ( i , j )
t ( i , j ) = {                                 j < 1 , j > m           C ( i , j )                     i = n       min m = j 2 : j + 2 ( t ( i 1 , m ) ) + C ( i , j )               o t h e r w i s e      

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