Abstract

We present the realisation of near-field spectroscopic measurements with fibre-tip-based scanning near-field microscopy. It allows the simultaneous acquisition of near-field images in a broad spectral range (400 nm to 1000 nm), thus recovering local spectroscopic information. This technique is essential in order to understand the resonant interaction of light with nanostructured material as the far-field and near-field spectral response can differ significantly, e.g., in the case of plasmonic nanostructures. Several example applications of hyperspectral near-field imaging are given for visualisation of Bloch modes in plasmonic crystals and plasmon-assisted transmission through a slit.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)
  2. A. Zayats, and D. Richards, eds., Nano-optics and Near-field Optical Microscopy (Artech House, 2008)
  3. A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).
  4. K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip‐sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 313–319 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 313–319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip‐sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Atia, W.

I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayvel, P.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 313–319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darmanyan, S. A.

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elliott, J.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P. R.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip‐sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip‐sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

Koller, D.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laux, E.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, V.

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

Neviere, M.

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petruska, M. A.

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

Pollard, R. J.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skauli, T.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

Wurtz, G. A.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip‐sample distance control for near field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(14), 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Near-field mapping of surface polariton fields,” J. Microsc. 202(Pt 2), 313–319 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Dickson, G. A. Wurtz, P. R. Evans, R. J. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Electronically controlled surface plasmon dispersion and optical transmission through metallic hole arrays using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 281–286 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, M. I. Stockman, and V. I. Klimov, “Broadband near-field interference spectroscopy of metal nanoparticles using femtosecond white-light continuum,” Opt. Express 28, 1686–1688 (2003).

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, W. Atia, and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical microscopy of two-dimensional photonic and plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2454–2460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Neviere, and A. V. Zayats, “Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes,” Phys. Rev. B 70(7), 075103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

V. Mikhailov, G. A. Wurtz, J. Elliott, P. Bayvel, and A. V. Zayats, “Dispersing light with surface plasmon polaritonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(8), 083901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(11), 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006)

A. Zayats, and D. Richards, eds., Nano-optics and Near-field Optical Microscopy (Artech House, 2008)

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (3578 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2525 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2589 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the SNOM setup with integrated spectroscopy. (b) Optical and (c) SEM images of the metal coated fiber probe tip. (d) Typical spectral sensitivity of the SNOM set-up is a convolution of the transmission spectrum of the SNOM fiber probe tip, sensitivity of the spectrograph and CCD as well as the spectrum of the illuminating light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic and (b) SEM image of the plasmonic crystal used in the experiments: Au film is 100 nm thick, the holes diameter is 200 nm, the array period is 600 nm, the overall size of the array is 10x10 μm2. (c) Far-field transmission dispersion of the crystal measured with p-polarised incident light. Lines show the spectrum of the Bragg-scattered SPPs calculated using the SPP modes on the smooth Au surface [8]. (p,q)g denotes the glass-Au modes and (p,q)a denotes air-Au modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-f) Near-field intensity distributions measured above the SPP crystal surface at different wavelengths (snapshots reconstructed from Media 1). The image (6x6 μm2 size) is obtained with the SNOM in collection mode under far-field illumination at normal incidence. (g-i) Near-field intensity distributions measured above the metal surface at different wavelengths (snapshots reconstructed from Media 2). The image size is 50x50 μm2. (j) Far-field and near-field transmission spectra of the SPP crystal. The near-field spectra are reconstructed from Media 1 at the positions A and B, respectively: A is above a hole and B is between holes. The wave length at which the images are presented in (a-f) are indicated by arrows. (k) Profiles of the Bloch mode field measured from the near-field optical images for the wavelengths of 581 nm, 609 nm and 645 nm along the line indicated in (c,d,f). The polarization of the illuminating light is indicated in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image of the slit-and-grooves structure: the grooves are 50 nm deep and 100 nm wide and have a period of 600 nm, and the central slit is 100 nm wide; the Au film is 300 nm thick; 10 grooves have been fabricated on each side of the slit with some asymmetry. (b-d) The images of the near-field coupling efficiency measured above the SPP crystal surface at different wavelengths (snapshots reconstructed from Media 3). (e) The transmission spectra measured with far-field and near-field illumination of the structure. The near-field spectra are reconstructed from Media 3 at the positions A, B and C, respectively. The normalization is internal for each spectrum.

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