Abstract

We report the performance of an X-ray phase contrast microscope for laboratory sources with 300 nm spatial resolution. The microscope is based on a commercial X-ray microfocus source equipped with a planar X-ray waveguide able to produce a sub-micrometer x-ray beam in one dimension. Phase contrast images of representative samples are reported. The achieved contrast and resolution is discussed for different configurations. The proposed approach could represent a simple, inexpensive, solution for sub-micrometer resolution imaging with small laboratory setups.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Momose, “Phase-contrast X-ray imaging based on interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(3), 136–142 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

A. Momose, “Phase-contrast X-ray imaging based on interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(3), 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Almaviva, S.

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arfelli, F.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnea, Z.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, R.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baruchel, J.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bonfigli, F.

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bram, A.

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bukreeva, I.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

Burghammer, M.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkeeva, I.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cedola, A.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, D. J.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

David, C.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, T. J.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Caro, L.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

di Fabrizio, E.

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Di Fonzo, S.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Engstrom, P.

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A. Ya.

Fourmaux, S.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franzini, I.

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

Gao, D.

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gasilov, S. V.

Giannini, C.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmür, N.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guagliardi, A.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guigay, J.-P.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gureyev, T. E.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ilie, M.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kando, M.

Kato, Y.

Kawachi, T.

Kieffer, J. C.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krol, A.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lagomarsino, S.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lai, A.

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, S. C.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menk, R.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T. H.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. R.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mocuta, C.

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, “Phase-contrast X-ray imaging based on interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(3), 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montereali, R. M.

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, B.

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöhammer, B.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paganin, D.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parry, D. J.

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelliccia, D.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikuz, T. A.

Pisano, E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogany, A.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riekel, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salditt, T.

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayers, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarinci, F.

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schlenker, M.

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skobelev, I. Yu.

Solak, H. H.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, A. W.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomlinson, W.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toth, R.

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. C. Mayo, T. J. Davis, T. E. Gureyev, P. R. Miller, D. Paganin, A. Pogany, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, “X-ray phase-contrast microscopy and microtomography,” Opt. Express 11(19), 2289–2302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An x-ray interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Almaviva, F. Bonfigli, I. Franzini, A. Lai, R. M. Montereali, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 054102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Lagomarsino, W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, A. Cedola, B. Mueller, P. Engstrom, and C. Riekel, “Sub-micro-meter X-ray beam production by a thin film wave-guide,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(8), 4471–4473 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Jark, S. Di Fonzo, S. Lagomarsino, A. Cedola, E. di Fabrizio, A. Bram, and C. Riekel, “Properties of a submicrometer x-ray beam at the exit of a waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(9), 4831–4836 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. C. Mayo, P. R. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Cloetens, R. Barrett, J. Baruchel, J.-P. Guigay, and M. Schlenker, “Phase objects in synchrotron radiation hard x-ray imaging,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(1), 133–146 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

A. Momose, “Phase-contrast X-ray imaging based on interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 9(3), 136–142 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bukreeva, D. Pelliccia, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, M. Ilie, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, and S. Lagomarsino, “Analysis of tapered front-coupling X-ray waveguides,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(1), 61–68 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, S. Lagomarsino, C. Giannini, L. De Caro, A. Cedola, and M. Müller, “Non-destructive determination of local strain with 100-nanometre spatial resolution,” Nature 403(6770), 638–640 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, S. Di Fonzo, W. Jark, A. Cedola, and S. Lagomarsino, “Spatial coherence of x-ray planar waveguide exiting radiation,” Opt. Commun. 217(1-6), 31–45 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

L. De Caro, A. Cedola, C. Giannini, I. Bukreeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line phase-contrast imaging for strong absorbing objects,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(22), 6619–6637 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmür, Z. Zhong, R. Menk, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, “Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(11), 2015–2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

L. De Caro, C. Giannini, D. Pelliccia, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, A. Guagliardi, A. Cedola, I. Burkeeva, and S. Lagomarsino, “In-line holography and coherent diffractive imaging with x-ray waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 081408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. A. Nugent, T. E. Gureyev, D. J. Cookson, D. Paganin, and Z. Barnea, “Quantitative phase imaging using hard x-rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(14), 2961–2964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Toth, J. C. Kieffer, S. Fourmaux, T. Ozaki, and A. Krol, “In-line phase-contrast imaging with a laser-based hard x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(8), 083701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

F. Pfeiffer, C. David, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, and T. Salditt, “Two-dimensional x-ray waveguides and point sources,” Science 297(5579), 230–234 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (1)

D. Pelliccia, I. Bukreeva, M. Ilie, W. Jark, A. Cedola, F. Scarinci, and S. Lagomarsino, “Computer simulations and experimental results on air-gap X-ray waveguides,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 62(6-7), 615–621 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for projection x-ray microscopy with WG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results about the Kevlar fiber. A) Measured intensity with geometrical magnification M = 41. The measurement shows the phase contrast at the interface air-fiber. The fiber is on the right. B-E) Cross section intensities, integrated along the longitudinal direction of the fiber for different magnifications (red dots) superimposed over the corresponding analytical simulation (black solid line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A-C) SEM images of the structures made by five gold stripes 600 nm thick with the significant distances used to test the resolution and D-F) the respective experimental images recorded by the CCD based detector. The acquisition time was 60s. The magnification effect takes place in the horizontal direction only. The black regions correspond to higher absorption (gold bars) although modulated by interference fringes because of the propagation. In G-I) the normalized intensity (red dots), integrated in vertical direction of D-F) respectively is reported. The experimental curves are superimposed on the analytical simulations (black solid line), considering a spatial resolution of 300 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two different images of the same human hair (diameter ~67 μm). The image in A) was taken without the WG. In this case we see the whole hair cross section but with poor resolution (rt ≈25 μm) and poor contrast. In B) we look at the air-hair interface only, using an x-ray WG with 200 nm vacuum gap. The hair is on the right hand side of the picture. In analogy with Fig. 2A a good visibility phase contrast fringe is visible. The improvement in contrast and resolution (rt ≈2μm) is noticeable.

Equations (1)

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r t = ( s z 2 z + 1 z 2 ) 2 + ( P S F z 1 z + 1 z 2 ) 2

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