Abstract

We have developed an optical system designed for detecting colored nanomaterials in aqueous solutions, using the concept of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors. In this study, we found that the waveguide modes induced in the sensor are intrinsically sensitive to a change in optical absorption, or a ‘change in color’. The system detects less than one gold nanoparticle (diameter: 20 nm) adsorbed per square micrometer. It is also demonstrated that significant signal enhancement due to adsorption of molecules is achieved using a dye. The developed sensor rarely suffers from a drawback of impurity adsorption. The system is expected to be applied as an effective sensing tool for metal colloids, nanoparticles, and colored biomolecules in solution.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (7)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, “The design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors,” Nanotechnology 19(9), 095503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, Y. Koganezawa, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, “Silica-based monolithic sensing plates for waveguide-mode sensors,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6408–6416 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6408 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Knoll, “Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves,” MRS Bull. 16, 29–39 (1991).

1989 (1)

R. Feidenhansl, “Surface-structure determination by X-ray-diffraction,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 10(3), 105–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Ruska, “The development of the electron microscope and of electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59(3), 627–638 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241(4), 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

Babcock, K.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, T. P.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, C.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, G.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. S.

Chen, X.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M. H.

Ekinci, K. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Feger, C.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feidenhansl, R.

R. Feidenhansl, “Surface-structure determination by X-ray-diffraction,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 10(3), 105–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, J. S.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, H.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujimaki, M.

Fukuda, N.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, “The design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors,” Nanotechnology 19(9), 095503 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, C.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godin, M.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, W. N.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, K. D. M.

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauptmann, P.

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kariuki, B. M.

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knoll, “Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves,” MRS Bull. 16, 29–39 (1991).

Knudsen, S. M.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koganezawa, Y.

Komatsubara, T.

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241(4), 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. H. A.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lima, A. M. N.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lucklum, R.

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreira, C. S.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Najmaie, A.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neff, H.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, Y.

Osterfeld, M.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petsko, G. A.

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringe, D.

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rong, G.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roukes, M. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruska, E.

E. Ruska, “The development of the electron microscope and of electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59(3), 627–638 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J. J.

Sander, M. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, W.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Smith, T. L.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, K.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thirstrup, C.

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