Abstract

We present an extensive data set of particle attenuation (cp), backscattering (bbp), and chlorophyll concentration (Chl) from a diverse set of open ocean environments. A consistent observation in the data set is the strong coherence between cp and bbp and the resulting constancy of the backscattering ratio (0.010 ± 0.002). The strong covariability between cp and bbp must be rooted in one or both of two explanations, 1) the size distribution of particles in the ocean is remarkably conserved and particle types responsible for cp and bbp covary, 2) the same particle types exert influence on both quantities. Therefore, existing relationships between cp or Chl:cp and phytoplankton biomass and physiological indices can be conceptually extended to the use of bbp. This finding lends support to use of satellite-derived Chl and bbp for investigation of phytoplankton biomass and physiology and broadens the applications of existing ocean color retrievals.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
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2009 (2)

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64(3), 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377–2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50(12), 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-pptical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light Scattering and Chlorophyll Concentration in Case 1 Waters: a Reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra- and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43(4-6), 891–906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(8), 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Ahn, Y. H.

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baratange, F.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64(3), 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50(12), 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Booth, E. S.

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64(3), 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50(12), 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowler, B. C.

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cowles, T. J.

Dall'Olmo, G.

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Drapeau, D. T.

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durand, M. D.

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra- and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43(4-6), 891–906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fennel, K.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. E.

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377–2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huot, Y.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(8), 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larson, G.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Lewis, M. R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light Scattering and Chlorophyll Concentration in Case 1 Waters: a Reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-pptical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R. A.

Morel, A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-pptical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light Scattering and Chlorophyll Concentration in Case 1 Waters: a Reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J. M.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. J.

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377–2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra- and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43(4-6), 891–906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Whitmire, E. Boss, T. J. Cowles, and W. S. Pegau, “Spectral variability of the particulate backscattering ratio,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7019–7031 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. R.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rottgers, R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sciandra, A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Shybanov, E.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slade, W. H.

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sosik, H. M.

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377–2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stramska, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M.

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twardowski, M. S.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Westberry, T.

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Westberry, T. K.

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Whitmire, A. L.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(8), 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biogeosciences (3)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences 5(2), 495–507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6(6), 947–967 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Rottgers, A. Sciandra, M. Stramska, M. S. Twardowski, B. A. Franz, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50(12), 1537–1549 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (1)

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra- and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43(4-6), 891–906 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (2)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), GB1006 (2005), doi:.
[CrossRef]

T. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, D. A. Siegel, and E. Boss, “Carbon-based primary productivity modeling with vertically resolved photoacclimation,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22(2), GB2024 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hydrobiologia (1)

E. S. Boss, R. Collier, G. Larson, K. Fennel, and W. S. Pegau, “Measurements of spectral optical properties and their relation to biogeochemical variables and processes in Crater Lake, Crater Lake National Park, OR,” Hydrobiologia 574(1), 149–159 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] (6)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-pptical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, H. R. Gordon, B. C. Bowler, D. T. Drapeau, and E. S. Booth, “Calcium carbonate measurements in the surface global ocean based on Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 110(C7), C07001 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 111(C9), C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case i and case ii waters,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 106(C7), 14129–14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, “Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] 109(C1), C01014 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (2)

A. Morel and Y. H. Ahn, “Optics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates and ciliates - a tentative assessment of their scattering role in oceanic waters compared to those of bacterial and algal cells,” J. Mar. Res. 49(1), 177–202 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass,” J. Mar. Res. 64(3), 431–451 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light Scattering and Chlorophyll Concentration in Case 1 Waters: a Reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43(5), 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kitchen and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A three-layered sphere model of the optical properties of phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37(8), 1680–1690 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton and other particles to inherent optical properties in New England continental shelf waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 2377–2391 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Oceanogr. (2)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28(4), 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery. a review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

I. Michael, Sieracki, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 180 McKown Point Road, West Boothbay Harbor, ME, 04575–0475, (personal communication, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A. Relationship between backscattering (bbp ) and beam attenuation (cp ) at 526 nm (colors indicate number of observations at each bbp ,cp pair) . “Best fit” line is calculated from weighted linear regression of 2D histogram with weights assigned as the square of the number of points found in each bin. Relationship of Huot et al. [20] (dashed line) was derived from equivalence of their Eqs. (8) and 9, while that of Dall’Olmo et al. [12] (solid line) was derived from the Equatorial Pacific data set alone. B. Distributions of backscattering ratio (bbp : cp ) at 526 nm for each data set and for all data combined. Histograms have been normalized to the total number of observations (N~105).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Particle beam attenuation (cp ) and backscattering (bbp ) at 526 nm as a function of chlorophyll (Chl). Chl (mg m−3) is estimated using an absorption line height approach [18] where Chl = (ap(676) - (0.6ap(650) + 0.4ap(714))) / a*Chl and a*Chl = 0.014 m2 mg−1; A. cp(526) versus Chl. Solid black line is the model of Loisel and Morel [19], dashed black line is [19] when including their North Atlantic data. Loisel and Morel [19] relationships were extrapolated to 526 nm (from 660 nm) using a spectral slope of λ−1, B. distribution of the ratio Chl:cp for each cruise and all data combined; C. bbp(526) versus Chl. Solid black line is the model of Huot et al. and dashed black line is model of Morel and Maritorena [21], D. distribution of the ratio Chl:bbp for each cruise and all data combined.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Chlorophyll (Chl), particle attenuation (cp ) and backscattering (bbp ) matchups between continuous flow through measurements and discrete in situ measurements. A. HPLC total Chl-a (Chl a + divinyl Chl a + Chlorophillide a) plotted versus simultaneous AC-s estimates made using absorption line height method (see previous figure caption). N = 99, r2 = 0.94. B. Near surface cp (depth <5 meters) calculated from CTD-mounted instruments on each cruise plotted versus simultaneous measurements with similar instrument (WETLabs C-Star, 660nm) made on continuous flowing seawater from ship’s intake. N = 262, r2 = 0.91. C. CTD-mounted bbp estimates (depth < 5m) versus underway estimates, N = 89, r2 = 0.83. Dashed line in each represents 1:1 line.

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