Abstract

A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based graphene biosensor is presented. It consists of a graphene sheet coated above a gold thin film, which has been proposed and experimentally fabricated recently [ChemPhysChem 11, 585 (2010)]. The biosensor uses attenuated total reflection (ATR) method to detect the refractive index change near the sensor surface, which is due to the adsorption of biomolecules. Our calculations show that the proposed graphene-on-gold SPR biosensor (with L graphene layers) is (1 + 0.025 L) × γ (where γ > 1) times more sensitive than the conventional gold thin film SPR biosensor. The improved sensitivity is due to increased adsorption of biomolecules on graphene (represented by the factor γ) and the optical property of graphene.

© 2010 OSA

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  18. S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
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2010

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsukamoto and T. Ogino, “Morphology of graphene on step-controlled sapphire surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Englebienne, A. V. Hoonacker, and M. Verhas, “Surface plasmon resonance: principles, methods and applications in biomedical sciences,” Spectroscopy 17, 255 (2003).

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Yamamoto, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) theory: tutorial,” Review of Polarography 48, 209 (2002).

1998

G. B. McGaughey, M. Gagné, and A. K. Rappé, “pi-Stacking interactions. Alive and well in proteins,” J. Biol. Chem. 273(25), 15458–15463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1978

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72(3), 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aksay, I. A.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borini, S.

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruna, M.

M. Bruna and S. Borini, “Optical constants of graphene layers in the visible range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 031901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchko, G. W.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H. S.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cort, J. R.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, C.

S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Donkers, S. P.

S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elstner, M.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Englebienne, P.

P. Englebienne, A. V. Hoonacker, and M. Verhas, “Surface plasmon resonance: principles, methods and applications in biomedical sciences,” Spectroscopy 17, 255 (2003).

Ewe, W. B.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C. H.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H. P.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gagné, M.

G. B. McGaughey, M. Gagné, and A. K. Rappé, “pi-Stacking interactions. Alive and well in proteins,” J. Biol. Chem. 273(25), 15458–15463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoonacker, A. V.

P. Englebienne, A. V. Hoonacker, and M. Verhas, “Surface plasmon resonance: principles, methods and applications in biomedical sciences,” Spectroscopy 17, 255 (2003).

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, and K. Ostrikov, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film solar cells through the excitation of higher-order nanoparticle plasmon modes,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10195–10205 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, S. W.

S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. L.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. P.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McGaughey, G. B.

G. B. McGaughey, M. Gagné, and A. K. Rappé, “pi-Stacking interactions. Alive and well in proteins,” J. Biol. Chem. 273(25), 15458–15463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, T.

T. Tsukamoto and T. Ogino, “Morphology of graphene on step-controlled sapphire surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72(3), 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Qi, W. P.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rappé, A. K.

G. B. McGaughey, M. Gagné, and A. K. Rappé, “pi-Stacking interactions. Alive and well in proteins,” J. Biol. Chem. 273(25), 15458–15463 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sian, S. Y.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, and S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.

B. Song, D. Li, W. P. Qi, M. Elstner, C. H. Fan, and H. P. Fang, “Graphene on Au(111): a highly conductive material with excellent adsorption properties for high-resolution bio/nanodetection and identification,” ChemPhysChem 11(3), 585–589 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 494–521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, T.

T. Tsukamoto and T. Ogino, “Morphology of graphene on step-controlled sapphire surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuijtel, M. W.

S. W. Kowalczyk, M. W. Tuijtel, S. P. Donkers, and C. Dekker, “Unraveling single-stranded DNA in a solid-state nanopore,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1414–1420 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verhas, M.

P. Englebienne, A. V. Hoonacker, and M. Verhas, “Surface plasmon resonance: principles, methods and applications in biomedical sciences,” Spectroscopy 17, 255 (2003).

Wang, W. S.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, P. K.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 044023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) theory: tutorial,” Review of Polarography 48, 209 (2002).

Yonzon, C. R.

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Tang, H. Wu, J. R. Cort, G. W. Buchko, Y. Zhang, Y. Shao, I. A. Aksay, J. Liu, and Y. Lin, “Constraint of DNA on functionalized graphene improves its biostability and specificity,” Small 6(11), 1205–1209 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, X. Y. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

J. Homola, “Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377(3), 528–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

T. Tsukamoto and T. Ogino, “Morphology of graphene on step-controlled sapphire surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 075502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. S. Chu, W. B. Ewe, W. S. Koh, and E. P. Li, “Remarkable influence of the number of nanowires on plasmonic behaviors of the coupled metallic nanowire chain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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