Abstract

We present for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that quantitative photoacoustic tomography (qPAT) has the potential to detect osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints. In this pilot study, 2 OA patients and 4 healthy volunteers were enrolled, and their distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints were examined photoacoustically by a PAT scanner. Tissue absorption coefficient images of all the examined joints, which were unavailable from the conventional PAT, were recovered using our finite element based qPAT approach. The recovered quantitative photoacoustic images revealed significant differences in the tissue absorption coefficient of the joint cavity (cartilage and synovial fluid) between the OA and normal joints.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based on the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in-vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2003

2002

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bluestone, G. Abdoulaev, C. Schmitz, R. Barbour, and A. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head,” Opt. Express 9(6), 272–286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, “Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23(8), 648–650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance,” Bone 22(3), 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(5), 426–428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of optical absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2128–2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19(3), 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

1991

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

1987

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Nevo, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chondrocytes as grafts for defects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220(220), 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G.

Abramovici, A.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Nevo, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chondrocytes as grafts for defects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220(220), 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Albrecht, M. E.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Altman, R. D.

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19(3), 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

Andreev, V.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arokoski, J. P.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

Au, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, A. J.

J. P. Mansell, C. Collins, and A. J. Bailey, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Rheumatol. 3(6), 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance,” Bone 22(3), 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R.

Beard, P. C.

Beuthan, J.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bluestone, A.

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20(5), 426–428 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandt, D. A.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brandt, K. D.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Brittberg, M.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, P. R.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Chance, B.

Chen, H.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, C.

J. P. Mansell, C. Collins, and A. J. Bailey, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Rheumatol. 3(6), 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, B. T.

de Mul, F. F.

Dekker, A.

Dines, K.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Esenaliev, R.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gatalica, Z.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaudette, T.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Hall, L.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Helminen, H. J.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrod, N.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Hielscher, A.

Hoelen, C. G. A.

Howell, D. S.

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19(3), 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hyttinen, M. M.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isaksson, O.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itay, S. A.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Nevo, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chondrocytes as grafts for defects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220(220), 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, C. H.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based on the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in-vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18076–18081 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic imaging of absolute optical absorption coefficient in turbid media using combined photoacoustic and diffusing light measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2556–2558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, “Spatially varying optical and acoustic property reconstruction using finite element-based photoacoustic tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(4), 878–888 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, B. W. Pogue, and M. S. Patterson, “Simultaneous reconstruction of optical absorption and scattering maps in turbid media from near-infrared frequency-domain data,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2128–2130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karabutov, A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiviranta, I.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knott, L.

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance,” Bone 22(3), 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koh, H.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Köstli, K. P.

Krause, A.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

Lang, P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Långsjö, T. K.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindahl, A.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorenzen, I.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Løvgreen-Nielsen, P.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, J. B.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mans, J.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mansell, J. P.

J. P. Mansell, C. Collins, and A. J. Bailey, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Rheumatol. 3(6), 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J. J.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minet, O.

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, S. L.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Naber, R.

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevo, Z.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Nevo, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chondrocytes as grafts for defects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220(220), 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

Nilsson, A.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Leary, M. A.

Ohlsson, C.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, U. L.

Østergaard, M.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

Panula, H. E.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pelttari, A.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, L.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

Pongers, R.

Prahl, S. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prapavat, V.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robson, M.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Roper, S. N.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Runge, W.

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savateeva, E.

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, C.

Singh, H.

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sobel, E.

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in-vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobel, E. S.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, M. P.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Stoica, G.

Stoltenberg, M.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangman, G.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in-vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based on the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, J. A.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volck, B.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

watson, P.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Yao, L.

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Yao, Y. Sun, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography based on the radiative transfer equation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1765–1767 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

Yodh, A. G.

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Wang, and H. Jiang, “Reconstruction of optical absorption coefficient maps of heterogeneous media by photoacoustic tomography coupled with diffusion equation based regularized Newton method,” Opt. Express 15(26), 18076–18081 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, Z. Yuan, and X. Gu, “Spatially varying optical and acoustic property reconstruction using finite element-based photoacoustic tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(4), 878–888 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Q. Wang, Q. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic imaging of absolute optical absorption coefficient in turbid media using combined photoacoustic and diffusing light measurements,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2556–2558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Orthop. Scand.

J. A. Tyler, P. watson, H. Koh, N. Herrod, M. Robson, and L. Hall, “Detection and monitoring of progressive degeneration of osteoarthritic cartilage by MRI,” Acta Orthop. Scand. 66(Suppl. 266), 130–138 (1995).

Am. J. Res.

W. P. Chan, P. Lang, and M. P. Stevens, “Osteoarthritis of the knee: comparison of radiology, CT, and MR imaging to asses extent and severity,” Am. J. Res. 157, 799–806 (1991).

Ann. Rheum. Dis.

H. E. Panula, M. M. Hyttinen, J. P. Arokoski, T. K. Långsjö, A. Pelttari, I. Kiviranta, and H. J. Helminen, “Articular cartilage superficial zone collagen birefringence reduced and cartilage thickness increased before surface fibrillation in experimental osteoarthritis,” Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57(4), 237–245 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Yuan and H. Jiang, “Quantitative photoacoustic tomography: Recovery of optical absorption coefficient of heterogeneous media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(23), 231101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arthritis Rheum.

M. Østergaard, M. Stoltenberg, P. Løvgreen-Nielsen, B. Volck, C. H. Jensen, and I. Lorenzen, “Magnetic resonance imaging-determined synovial membrane and joint effusion volumes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: comparison with the macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the synovium,” Arthritis Rheum. 40(10), 1856–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Tech. (Berl.)

V. Prapavat, W. Runge, J. Mans, A. Krause, J. Beuthan, and G. Müller, “Entwicklung eines Fingergelenkphantoms zur optischen Simulation früher entzündlich-rheumatischer Veränderungen - Development of a Finger Joint Phantom for the Optical Simulation of Early Stages of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Biomed. Tech. (Berl.) 42(11), 319–326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bone

L. Knott and A. J. Bailey, “Collagen cross-links in mineralizing tissues: a review of their chemistry, function, and clinical relevance,” Bone 22(3), 181–187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.

S. A. Itay, A. Abramovici, and Z. Nevo, “Use of cultured embryonal chick epiphyseal chondrocytes as grafts for defects in chick articular cartilage,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 220(220), 284–303 (1987).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. S. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Tomographic x-ray guided three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 044006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in-vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

L. Yao and H. Jiang, “Finite-element-based photoacoustic tomography in time domain,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 085301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Rheumatol.

S. L. Myers, K. Dines, D. A. Brandt, K. D. Brandt, and M. E. Albrecht, “Experimental assessment by high frequency ultrasound of articular cartilage thickness and osteoarthritic changes,” J. Rheumatol. 22(1), 109–116 (1995).
[PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med.

M. Brittberg, A. Lindahl, A. Nilsson, C. Ohlsson, O. Isaksson, and L. Peterson, “Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation,” N. Engl. J. Med. 331(14), 889–895 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Clin. Pract. Rheumatol.

J. P. Mansell, C. Collins, and A. J. Bailey, “Bone, not cartilage, should be the major focus in osteoarthritis,” Nat. Clin. Pract. Rheumatol. 3(6), 306–307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, “The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics,” Neuroimage 13(1), 76–90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. A. Oraevsky, V. Andreev, A. Karabutov, D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R. Esenaliev, “Laser opto-acoustic imaging of the breast: detection of cancer angiogensis,” Proc. SPIE 3597, 352–363 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Karabutov, E. Savateeva, and A. Oraevsky, “Imaging of layered structures in biological tissues with opto-acoustic front surface transducer,” Proc. SPIE 3601, 284–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Beuthan, V. Prapavat, R. Naber, O. Minet, and G. Muller, “Diagnostic of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves,” Proc. SPIE 2676, 43–53 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am.

D. S. Howell and R. D. Altman, “Cartilage repair and conservation in osteoarthritis,” Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 19(3), 713–724 (1993).
[PubMed]

Other

K. D. Brandt, “Pathogenesis of osteoarthritis,” in Textbook of Rheumatology (W.N. Kelly, E.D. Harris, S. Ruddy, C. Sledge, editors), fifth edition, WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the transducer array/finger interface of the photoacoustic tomography system used for the current study. S: Laser source; T1-T8: Transducers. (b) Schematic of the coronal section/plane for the transducer scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recovered absorption coefficient images for the six subjects examined. (a)-(d): normal joints. (e)-(f): OA joints. The color scale indicates the absorption coefficient (mm−1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average absorption coefficient of cartilage (red) and fluid (blue) for the healthy (H1-H4) and osteoarthritic (OA1-OA2) joints. (b) Ratio of absorption coefficient of cartilage to that of bone (red), or ratio of absorption coefficient of fluid to that of bone (blue) for the healthy and OA joints.

Metrics