Abstract

Diverse movements using optical manipulation have been introduced. These are generally performed in the focal region of the laser beam. To achieve a wider range of movements based on precise motion transformation, an effective method for optical manipulation that overcomes the important obstacles such as small optical trapping forces, friction, and the viscosity of fluids is required. A multi-link system with an elastic joint is introduced that provides precise motion transformation and amplification. By considering the physical properties of the structure and the optical trapping force, an elastic micron-scale joint with the simple shape of a thin plate was designed. As a further example of a multi-link system with an elastic joint, a double 4-link system for motion enlargement was designed and fabricated. By performing experimental evaluations of the fabricated structures, it was confirmed that multi-link systems with an elastic joint were effective tools for precise motion transformation through optical manipulation.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (5)

2008 (1)

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4653–4655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 100(1), 70–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, C. A.

Arlt, J.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asavei, T.

T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basdogan, C.

Bergander, A.

Bowman, R.

Bryant, P. E.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukusoglu, I.

Carberry, D.

Cho, N. C.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J.

C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

di Leonardo, R.

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doganay, S.

Friese, M. E. J.

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4653–4655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G.

Glückstad, J.

Gold, J.

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature 424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagberg, P.

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haliyo, S.

Hanstorp, D.

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heckenberg, N. R.

T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, E.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, D.

C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, K.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 100(1), 70–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, M.

Ito, T.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawada, H.

Kelemen, L.

Kiraz, A.

Kitajima, H.

Knöner, G.

Kong, H. J.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korogi, H.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. W.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loke, V. L. Y.

MacDonald, M. P.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and K. Ikuta, “Submicron stereolithography for the production of freely movable mechanisms by using single-photon polymerization,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 100(1), 70–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mushfique, H.

J. Leach, H. Mushfique, R. di Leonardo, M. Padgett, and J. Cooper, “An optically driven pump for microfluidics,” Lab Chip 6(6), 735–739 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

C. H. Nam, D. Lee, D. Hong, and J. Chung, “Manipulation of nano devices with optical tweezers,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Man. 10(5), 45–51 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, T. A.

T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oakey, J.

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Microfluidic control using colloidal devices,” Science 296(5574), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohguchi, O.

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. J. Rodrigo, L. Kelemen, D. Palima, C. A. Alonzo, P. Ormos, and J. Glückstad, “Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironments for biomedical studies,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6578–6583 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Rotors produced and driven in laser tweezers with reversed direction of rotation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4653–4655 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 249–251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pacoret, C.

Padgett, M.

Palima, D.

Park, S. H.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parkin, S.

Paterson, L.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Régnier, S.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

T. Asavei, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Fabrication of microstructures for optically driven micromachines using two-photon photopolymerization of UV curing resins,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(3), 1–7 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöner, S. Parkin, T. A. Nieminen, V. L. Y. Loke, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Integrated optomechanical microelements,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5521–5530 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. J. Friese, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, J. Gold, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, “Optically driven micromachine elements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 547–549 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Optical alignment and spinning of laser-trapped microscopic particles,” Nature 395(6702), 621–621 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, R.

E. Higurashi, R. Sawada, and T. Ito, “Optically driven angular alignment of microcomponents made of in-plane birefringent polyimide film based on optical angular momentum transfer,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(2), 140–145 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292(5518), 912–914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, Y.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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A. Terray, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fabrication of linear colloidal structures for microfluidic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1555–1557 (2002).
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Tsutsui, S.

Ukita, H.

E. Higurashi, O. Ohguchi, T. Tamamura, H. Ukita, and R. Sawada, “Optically induced rotation of dissymmetrically shaped fluorinated polyimide micro-objects in optical traps,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(6), 2773–2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Varol, A.

Yang, D. Y.

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. A: Mater. (1)

T. W. Lim, Y. Son, D. Y. Yang, H. J. Kong, K. S. Lee, and S. H. Park, “Highly effective three-dimensional large-scale microfabrication using a continuous scanning method,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. 92(3), 541–545 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon micro stereolithography,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(5), 533–539 (2003).
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Opt. Express (5)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams of (a) the two-photon stereolithography system for the 3D fabrication of movable nano/micro structures, and (b) the optical manipulation system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CAD model of a single link connected by a pin-joint. The tolerance at the joint causes error. (b), (c), and (d) CCD images of the link during rotation under optical manipulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic diagram of the beam bending test with a cantilever for the measurement of the optical trapping force. CCD images of (b) the cantilever in the initial state, and (c) the cantilever bent by optical manipulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) CAD model of a cantilever composed of a single link and an elastic joint. The trapping point is located at the end of the link. The width and the height of the link are both 1.2 µm, and the height of the joint is 1.2 µm. (b) to (e) The deflection and the normalized slope at each point of the cantilever for joints of various widths when force is applied at the trapping point for links with lengths of (b), (c) 20 µm and (d), (e) 40 µm. Most deformation occurs at the elastic joint. When the width of the joint is as small as one fourth of the width of the link with a length of 20 µm, the joint deforms elastically and little deformation of the link is observed. For a link with a length of 40 µm, the elastic joint needs to be smaller than a sixth of the width of the link.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CAD model of a cantilever composed of a single link and an elastic joint. The trapping point and the observation point are located 10 µm from the joint and at the end of the link respectively. CCD images of (b) the cantilever with a joint in the initial state, and (c) the cantilever bent by optical manipulation. Only the joint deforms elastically.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) CAD model of a double 4-link system with an elastic joint for enlargement of the displacement. CCD images of the link system (b) in the initial state and (c) after optical driving. (d) The experimental results and the FEM simulation results for the displacement of the trapping point versus the displacement of the observation point. The movement of the trapped point is precisely transferred by the elastic joint. The ratio was estimated from the geometry of the link system.

Equations (1)

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F F y sec ( θ ) = 3 E I δ L 3 × sec ( tan 1 3 δ 2 L ) ,

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