Abstract

We performed infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging of molecular species in cultured cell interiors of A549 cells using in-house developed vibrational sum-frequency generation detected IR super-resolution microscope. The spatial resolution of this IR microscope was approximately 1.1 µm, which exceeds the diffraction limit of IR light. Therefore, we clearly observed differences in the signal intensity at various IR wavelengths which appear to originate from the differing IR absorptions of specific vibrational modes, and reveal the distribution of molecular species in the single cell. These results were never imaged with the conventional IR microscope.

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  1. P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Spatial resolution in infrared microspectroscopic imaging of tissues,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 814–829 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).
  9. C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego 2003)
  13. N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Inoue, M. Fujii, and M. Sakai, “Development of a non-scanning vibrational sum-frequency generation detected infrared super-resolution microscope and its application to biological cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(3), 275–281 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Inoue, N. Bokor, S. Kogure, M. Fujii, and M. Sakai, “Two-point-separation in a sub-micron nonscanning IR super-resolution microscope based on transient fluorescence detected IR spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(14), 12013–12018 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. J. Pouchert, The Aldrich library of infrared spectra (Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, 1970)
  17. G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Miyauchi, H. Sano, and G. Mizutani, “Selective observation of starch in a water plant using optical sum-frequency microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1687–1690 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, M. Fujii, and M. Sakai, “Development of a non-scanning vibrational sum-frequency generation detected infrared super-resolution microscope and its application to biological cells,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(3), 275–281 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Spatial resolution in infrared microspectroscopic imaging of tissues,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 814–829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2798–2804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Miyauchi, H. Sano, and G. Mizutani, “Selective observation of starch in a water plant using optical sum-frequency microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1687–1690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akamatsu, N.

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, C. C. A.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

Book, L. D.

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Caine, S.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Campanale, N.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.-X.

H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Domen, K.

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eiden, M.

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabian, H.

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, M.

Goto, Y.

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Heraud, P.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, C.

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Ji, N.

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Karnezis, T.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kogure, S.

Koyama, T.

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lasch, P.

P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Spatial resolution in infrared microspectroscopic imaging of tissues,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 814–829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T. T.

H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masutani, K.

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McNaughton, D.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, Y.

Mizutani, G.

Y. Miyauchi, H. Sano, and G. Mizutani, “Selective observation of starch in a water plant using optical sum-frequency microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1687–1690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naito, Y.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, D.

P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Spatial resolution in infrared microspectroscopic imaging of tissues,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 814–829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Onishi, T.

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

Sano, H.

Y. Miyauchi, H. Sano, and G. Mizutani, “Selective observation of starch in a water plant using optical sum-frequency microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(7), 1687–1690 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J.

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thi, N. A. N.

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobin, M. J.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toh-e, A.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomizawa, S.

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-W.

H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wood, B. R.

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2)

P. Lasch and D. Naumann, “Spatial resolution in infrared microspectroscopic imaging of tissues,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 814–829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fabian, N. A. N. Thi, M. Eiden, P. Lasch, J. Schmitt, and D. Naumann, “Diagnosing benign and malignant lesions in breast tissue sections by using IR-microspectroscopy,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 874–882 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, C. Hirose, T. Onishi, H. Shimizu, and K. Masutani, “SFG study of rotational anisotropy of cadmium arachidate Langmuir-Blodgett films,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 181(2-3), 175–178 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. Ji, K. Zhang, H. Yang, and Y. R. Shen, “Three-dimensional chiral imaging by sum-frequency generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(11), 3482–3483 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

C. Hirose, H. Yamamoto, N. Akamatsu, and K. Domen, “Orientation analysis by simulation of vibrational sum frequency generation spectrum: CH stretching bands of the methyl group,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(39), 10064–10069 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goto, N. Akamatsu, K. Domen, and C. Hirose, “Vibration-induced order-disorder transitions in a Langmuir-Blodgett film as investigated by vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(12), 4086–4090 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “An Epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(7), 1277–1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. Hamaguchi, “In vivo time-resolved Raman Imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(9), 837–839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

P. Heraud, S. Caine, N. Campanale, T. Karnezis, D. McNaughton, B. R. Wood, M. J. Tobin, and C. C. A. Bernard, “Early detection of the chemical changes occurring during the induction and prevention of autoimmune-mediated demyelination detected by FT-IR imaging,” Neuroimage 49(2), 1180–1189 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H.-W. Wang, T. T. Le, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope,” Opt. Commun. 281(7), 1813–1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Spectrochim. Acta [A] (1)

G. Mizutani, T. Koyama, S. Tomizawa, and H. Sano, “Distinction between some saccharides in scattered optical sum frequency intensity images,” Spectrochim. Acta [A] 62(4-5), 845–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. J. Pouchert, The Aldrich library of infrared spectra (Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, 1970)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, San Diego 2003)

Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the VSFG microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

VSFG images of an A549 cultured cell. (a) Transmission image of the cell. Image obtained by (b) only visible (λ VIS = 610 nm) and (c) only IR (λ IR = 3273 nm (ν IR = 3055 cm−1)) beams, (d) simultaneous introduction of visible and IR beams (λ VIS = 610 nm, λ IR = 3273 nm (ν IR = 3055 cm−1)). (e) As for (d), but with the IR wavelength increased to 3666 nm (ν IR = 2728 cm−1). The white scale bars in each figure indicate 5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IR wavelength dependence of the A549 cultured cell image. VSFG image obtained by simultaneous introduction of visible (610 nm) and IR beams whose wavelengths were λ IR = 3175 nm (ν IR = 3150 cm−1) (a), λ IR = 3273 nm (ν IR = 3055 cm−1) (b), λ IR = 3419 nm (ν IR = 2925 cm−1) (c), λ IR = 3568 nm (ν IR = 2803 cm−1) (d). The white scale bars in each figure indicate 5 μm.

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