Abstract

The conventional auto-focus and zoom image systems were made by a set of motor-moved lenses. Because of mechanical moving parts, it is not easy to miniaturize their sizes. In this paper, we propose a thin autofocus system using a large stroke MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) deformable mirror which has the potential to downscale the size and to minimize chromatic aberration. The large stroke MEMS deformable mirror is made by a polyimide membrane that has a maximum 12 μm displacement over a 3 mm aperture. The module size is 5.4 mm thick in optical design layout and 6.7 mm after packaging. This autofocus system is designed with the f-number = 4.13, on-axis MTF = 0.28 at full frequency of 230 cycles/mm, and incident light within ± 26 degree. The position of clear image can vary from 4 cm to 50 cm achieved by controlling the surface curvature of the MEMS deformable mirror.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. R. C. Gutierrez, T. K. Tang, R. Calvet, and E. R. Fossum, “MEMS digital camera,” Proc. SPIE 6502, paper36, 1–8 (2007).
  2. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. L. Wang, T. Y. Chen, Y. H. Chien, and G. D. Su, “Miniature optical autofocus camera by micromachined fluoropolymer deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6268–6274 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Wick, “Active Optical Zoom System,” US patent 6,977,777 (2005).
  6. W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: the design of optical systems,2nd, (McGraw-Hill, 1990), pp.436.
  7. E. Hecht, Optics, 4nd (Addison Wesley, 2001).
    [PubMed]
  8. Boston Micromachines Corporation, http://www.bostonmicromachines.com/ .
  9. V. T. Srikar and S. M. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 102(3), 279–285 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Seidl, J. Knobbe, and H. Grüger, “Design of an all-reflective unobscured optical-power zoom objective,” Appl. Opt. 48(21), 4097–4107 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. T. Srikar and S. M. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 102(3), 279–285 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. Y.

Chien, Y. H.

Chiu, C.

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grüger, H.

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Knobbe, J.

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seidl, K.

Spearing, S. M.

V. T. Srikar and S. M. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 102(3), 279–285 (2003).
[Crossref]

Srikar, V. T.

V. T. Srikar and S. M. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 102(3), 279–285 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, G.

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Su, G. D.

Wang, J.

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. L.

Wu, S.

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

ETRI Journal (1)

J. Wang, T. Chen, C. Liu, C. Chiu, and G. Su, “Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing,” ETRI Journal 29(6), 817–819 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ren, Y. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. Wu, “Tunable-Focus Cylindrical Liquid Crystal Lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

V. T. Srikar and S. M. Spearing, “Materials selection for microfabricated electrostatic actuators,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 102(3), 279–285 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

R. C. Gutierrez, T. K. Tang, R. Calvet, and E. R. Fossum, “MEMS digital camera,” Proc. SPIE 6502, paper36, 1–8 (2007).

D. Wick, “Active Optical Zoom System,” US patent 6,977,777 (2005).

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering: the design of optical systems,2nd, (McGraw-Hill, 1990), pp.436.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4nd (Addison Wesley, 2001).
[PubMed]

Boston Micromachines Corporation, http://www.bostonmicromachines.com/ .

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1082 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical system design in reflective form, and (b) its modulation transfer function (MTF) when a MEMS deformable mirror is flat for far objects

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image simulation results of Lady Lenna, and (b) its modulation transfer function (MTF) when a MEMS deformable mirror is actuated for near objects.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Device fabrication processes for a top polymer membrane and a bottom electrode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawings and photos of a fabricated MEMS deformable mirror device

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diopter changes versus applied voltage of the polymer MEMS DM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Assembly 3D drawings of an autofocus module

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Cover with a freeform mirror, (b) base with polymer MEMS DM and (c)final Assembly module

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pictures of near and far objects (Media 1).

Equations (1)

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P = 16 x D 2 ,

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