Abstract

Second-order nonlinear holographic microscopy for highspeed, three-dimensional imaging is demonstrated. The use of harmonic generation allows image formation of endogenous features in biological samples such as muscle tissue. We have acquired holograms with acquisition times as short as 10 ms, limited by the switching speed of our shutter; frame rates of 100’s of Hz are expected to be possible. The samples are imaged with a Yb:KGW femtosecond laser oscillator, whose 1027 nm wavelength is well suited to minimize absorption and scattering. The low average power of the oscillator prevents damage to the sample.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (5)

2008 (4)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

C. Sun, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy," Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biot. 95, 17-56, (2005).

A.-C. Millard, M. Terasaki, and L.-M. Loew, "Second Harmonic Imaging of Exocytosis at Fertilization," Biophys. J. 88, L46-L48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, "Second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins," Methods 29, 97-109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms", Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

S. D. Nocola, P. Ferraro, A Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Wave front reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms with compensation of aberrations by means of phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 331-340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Yeh, N. Nassif, A. Zoumi, and B. J. Tromberg, "Selective corneal imaging using combined second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Opt. Lett. 27, 2082-2084 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. W. Chu, I. H. Chen, T. M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Lin, "Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 1909-1911 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and S. Charpak, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Squier and M. M¨uller, "High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855-2867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, "Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6700-6704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Biophys. J. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms," Appl. Opt. 38, 6994-7001 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Soeller and M.-B. Cannell, "Construction of a two-photon microscope and optimisation of illumination pulse duration," Pflgers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 432, 555-561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, A. Tirksliunas, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical harmonic generation from animal tissues by the use of picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 35, 6810-6813 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, "Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon," Biophys. J. 50, 693-712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

S. Roth and I. Freund, "Coherent optical harmonic generation in rat-tail," Opt. Commun. 33, 292-296 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Second harmonic imaging in the scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 10, 435-439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen "Nonlinear microscopic examination of structure in polycrystalline ZnSe," Opt. Commun. 12, 318-322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1962 (1)

Adelsberger, H.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Amin, M. S.

Antkowiak, M.

Aronov, D.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspert, N.

Attwood, D.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ben Ari, Y.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bormuth, V.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Callens, N.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, "Second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins," Methods 29, 97-109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannell, M.-B.

C. Soeller and M.-B. Cannell, "Construction of a two-photon microscope and optimisation of illumination pulse duration," Pflgers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 432, 555-561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Centurion, M.

Charpak, S.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and S. Charpak, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrere, F

Charriere, F.

Chen, I. H.

Chen, P. C.

Choi, W.

Choi, Y.-S.

Christensen, P.

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen, "Nonlinear optical microscope using second-harmonic generation," Appl. Opt. 14, 247-248 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen "Nonlinear microscopic examination of structure in polycrystalline ZnSe," Opt. Commun. 12, 318-322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chu, S. W.

Clark, H. A.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cossart, R.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, G.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crepel, V.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

D’Angelo, E.

Dasari, R. R.

De Souza, R.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Depeursing, C.

Depeursinge, C.

Deutsch, M.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, "Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon," Biophys. J. 50, 693-712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dieudonne, S.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, F.

Dugue, G. P.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, M. D.

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Tomographic phase microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 717-719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Feltz, A.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

S. D. Nocola, P. Ferraro, A Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Wave front reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms with compensation of aberrations by means of phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 331-340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A

S. D. Nocola, P. Ferraro, A Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Wave front reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms with compensation of aberrations by means of phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 331-340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, I.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, "Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon," Biophys. J. 50, 693-712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Roth and I. Freund, "Coherent optical harmonic generation in rat-tail," Opt. Commun. 33, 292-296 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gandolfi, D.

Gannaway, J. N.

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Second harmonic imaging in the scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 10, 435-439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Garaschuk, O.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncalves, E.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorrell, M. D.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Grienberger, C.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Hellwarth, R.

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen, "Nonlinear optical microscope using second-harmonic generation," Appl. Opt. 14, 247-248 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen "Nonlinear microscopic examination of structure in polycrystalline ZnSe," Opt. Commun. 12, 318-322 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Biophys. J. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. L.

Huhn, J.

Ikeda, T.

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jones, A.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorquera, I.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juptner, W.

Juptner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms", Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kable, E.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Konnerth, A.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, J.

Lee, S.-J.

Leith, E. N.

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, "Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6700-6704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, B. L.

Lindken, R.

T. A. Ooms, R. Lindken, and J. Westerweel, "Digital holographic microscopy applied to measurement of a flow in a T-shaped micromixer," Exp. Fluids 47, 941-955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linial, M.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, "Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6700-6704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Liu, T. M.

Liu, Y. W.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, "Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6700-6704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L.-M.

A.-C. Millard, M. Terasaki, and L.-M. Loew, "Second Harmonic Imaging of Exocytosis at Fertilization," Biophys. J. 88, L46-L48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotti, J.

Lue, N.

M¨uller, M.

J. Squier and M. M¨uller, "High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855-2867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manconi, F.

G. Cox, E. Kable, A. Jones, I. Fraser, F. Manconi, and M. D. Gorrell, "3-dimensional imaging of collagen using second harmonic generation," J. Struct. Biol. 141, 53-62 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manuccia, T. J.

Mapelli, J.

Marandi, N.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Mathieu, B.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A. C.

W. A. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, "Second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins," Methods 29, 97-109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A.-C.

A.-C. Millard, M. Terasaki, and L.-M. Loew, "Second Harmonic Imaging of Exocytosis at Fertilization," Biophys. J. 88, L46-L48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milos, R. I.

O. Garaschuk, R. I. Milos, C. Grienberger, N. Marandi, H. Adelsberger, and A. Konnerth, "Optical monitoring of brain function in vivo: from neurons to networks," Pfl¨ugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 453, 385-396 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohler, W. A.

W. A. Mohler, A. C. Millard, and P. J. Campagnola, "Second harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins," Methods 29, 97-109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, H. A. Clark, W. A. Mohler, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "Second-harmonic imaging microscopy of living cells," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 277-286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montfort, F.

Moreaux, L.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and S. Charpak, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M.

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nocola, S. D.

S. D. Nocola, P. Ferraro, A Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Wave front reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms with compensation of aberrations by means of phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 331-340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, R.-P.

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Tomographic phase microscopy," Nat. Methods 4, 717-719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ooms, T. A.

T. A. Ooms, R. Lindken, and J. Westerweel, "Digital holographic microscopy applied to measurement of a flow in a T-shaped micromixer," Exp. Fluids 47, 941-955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Otsu, Y.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, D.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, F.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Paul, A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. W. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, "Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths," Science 297, 376-378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Pavillon, N.

Pavone, F.-S.

Peleg, G.

G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew, "Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected cellular sites," P. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 6700-6704 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierattini, G.

S. D. Nocola, P. Ferraro, A Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Wave front reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms with compensation of aberrations by means of phase-shifting digital holography," Opt. Laser Eng. 37, 331-340 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

Psaltis, D.

Pu, Y.

Recher, G.

Reintjes, J.

Represa, A.

V. Crepel, D. Aronov, I. Jorquera, A. Represa, Y. Ben Ari, and R. Cossart, "A parturition-associated nonsynaptic coherent activity pattern in the developing hippocampus," Neuron 54, 105-120 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricardo, J.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

S. Roth and I. Freund, "Coherent optical harmonic generation in rat-tail," Opt. Commun. 33, 292-296 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rouede, D.

Sacconi, L.

Sandre, O.

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and S. Charpak, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars and W. P. O. Juptner, "Digital recording and numerical reconstruction of holograms", Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, R85-R101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. Juptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaffer, E.

Sheetz, K. E.

K. E. Sheetz and J. Squier, "Ultrafast optics: Imaging and manipulating biological systems," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

J. N. Gannaway and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Second harmonic imaging in the scanning optical microscope," Opt. Quantum Electron. 10, 435-439 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soeller, C.

C. Soeller and M.-B. Cannell, "Construction of a two-photon microscope and optimisation of illumination pulse duration," Pflgers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 432, 555-561 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sprecher, A.

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, "Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon," Biophys. J. 50, 693-712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

K. E. Sheetz and J. Squier, "Ultrafast optics: Imaging and manipulating biological systems," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 051101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Squier and M. M¨uller, "High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855-2867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy," Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biot. 95, 17-56, (2005).

Sun, C. K.

Terasaki, M.

A.-C. Millard, M. Terasaki, and L.-M. Loew, "Second Harmonic Imaging of Exocytosis at Fertilization," Biophys. J. 88, L46-L48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tiaho, F.

Tirksliunas, A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Upatniek, J.

Valin, J. L.

F. Palacios, J. Ricardo, D. Palacios, E. Goncalves, J. L. Valin, and R. De Souza, "3D image reconstruction of transparent microscopic objects using digital holography," Opt. Commun. 248, 41-50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M. D.

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerweel, J.

T. A. Ooms, R. Lindken, and J. Westerweel, "Digital holographic microscopy applied to measurement of a flow in a T-shaped micromixer," Exp. Fluids 47, 941-955 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

Wong, J.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugue, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonne, "Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope," J. Neurosci. Meth. 173, 259-270 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Biophys. J. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).

Yeh, A. T.

Yourassowsky, C.

Zoumi, A.

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Biophys. J. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).

Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biot. (1)

C. Sun, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy," Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biot. 95, 17-56, (2005).

Appl. Opt. (8)

Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, A. Tirksliunas, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, "Optical harmonic generation from animal tissues by the use of picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 35, 6810-6813 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Simultaneous amplitude-contrast and quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by numerical reconstruction of Fresnel off-axis holograms," Appl. Opt. 38, 6994-7001 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hellwarth and P. Christensen, "Nonlinear optical microscope using second-harmonic generation," Appl. Opt. 14, 247-248 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schnars and W. Juptner, "Direct recording of holograms by a CCD target and numerical reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 33, 179-181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Colomb, E. Cuche, F Charriere, J. Huhn, N. Aspert, F. Montfort, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Automatic procedure for aberration compensation in digital holographic microscopy and applications to specimen shape compensation," Appl. Opt. 45, 851-863 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Quantitative phase imaging of live cells using fast Fourier phase microscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 1836-1842 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pu, M. Centurion and D. Psaltis, "Harmonic holography: a new holographic principle," Appl. Opt. 47, 103-110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Choi and S.-J. Lee, "Three-dimensional volumetric measurement of red blood cell motion using digital holographic microscopy," Appl. Opt. 48, 2983-2990 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (6)

P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, and S. Charpak, "Coherent scattering in multi-harmonic light microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 1568-1574 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Biophys. J. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).

I. Freund, M. Deutsch, and A. Sprecher, "Optical second-harmonic microscopy, crossed-beam summation, and small-angle scattering in rat-tail tendon," Biophys. J. 50, 693-712 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (3500 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (14146 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental arrangement; see text for details. (b) Second-harmonic spectra measured for the reference beam (blue line) and samples human muscle (green), starch granules (red), and corn seed (cyan). (c) Interference Fresnel rings observed without a sample at the image plane, at time overlap between reference and independently frequency-doubled object pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A cluster of starch granules (scale is the same for all figures): (a) White light; (b) second-harmonic from the sample; (c) measured hologram; (d) reconstruction at image plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Peak intensities, in local regions around starch grains marked A, B and C in Fig. 2, with varying reconstruction distance dH . The peaks correspond to the axial plane where each grain is focused. Comparison between two object planes dS allows us to estimate the microscope axial magnification.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image and reconstruction of corn seed at two different image and reconstruction planes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Media 1, Media 2) Hologram reconstruction showing several separate human muscle fibrils. The animation shows the assembly of reconstruction planes into the three-dimensional depiction of the sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Polarization dependence of SHG generated within muscle tissue.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Signal to noise ratios measured on a single starch granule (blue) and muscle tissue (red), at different integration times. The 10 ms minimum opening time of the mechanical shutter is indicated by the dashed line. Inset: Regions used to sample maximum signal (blue frame) and standard deviation noise (yellow), for muscle reconstruction shown in logarithmic color scale.

Equations (6)

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P2(r0)=12 ε0 χ(2) (r0) : E0 (r0) E0 (r0) .
Eobj(x,y;z)=μ0ω22 ∫∫ V G0 (r,r0) · P(2) (r0) d r03
G0(r,r0)=14πr3exp[ik2(r2xx0yy0+zz0)r][x2r2xyxzxyy2r2yzxzxzz2r2],
IH(x,y)=12ncε0Eref(x,y)+Eobj(x,y)2
=12ncε0[Eref(x,y)·Eref*(x,y)+Eobj(x,y)·Eobj*(x,y)
+Eref*(x,y)·Eobj(x,y)+Eref(x,y)·Eobj*(x,y)].

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