Abstract

We present a holography-based in vivo optical phase conjugation experiment performed on a living rabbit ear. The motion of live tissues caused the phase conjugate signal to decay with a consistent decay time of less than two seconds. We monitor the signal decay time variation after the ear is excised to postulate different mechanisms that cause the signal decay. The experimental findings address the minimum speed limit of a broad range of optical time reversal experiments for in vivo applications on tissues.

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References

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  1. T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical photonics handbook (CRC press, New York, 2003).
  2. V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(9), 650–660 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, “Phase-conjugating mirror with continuous-wave gain,” Opt. Lett. 5(12), 519–521 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  7. P. D. Drummond and A. T. Friberg, “Specular reflection cancellation in an interferometer with a phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(10), 5618–5625 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. P. M. Gower, Optical phase conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).
  9. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2005

V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Gu and P. C. Yeh, “Partial phase-conjugation, fidelity, and reciprocity,” Opt. Commun. 107(5-6), 353–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. D. Drummond and A. T. Friberg, “Specular reflection cancellation in an interferometer with a phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(10), 5618–5625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

1978

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(9), 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cui, M.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond and A. T. Friberg, “Specular reflection cancellation in an interferometer with a phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(10), 5618–5625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friberg, A. T.

P. D. Drummond and A. T. Friberg, “Specular reflection cancellation in an interferometer with a phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(10), 5618–5625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gu, C.

C. Gu and P. C. Yeh, “Partial phase-conjugation, fidelity, and reciprocity,” Opt. Commun. 107(5-6), 353–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Jeong, K.

Lind, R. C.

McDowell, E. J.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, D. D.

Psaltis, D.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senekerimyan, V.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

Steel, D. G.

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turek, J. J.

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

Yang, C.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(9), 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(9), 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P. C.

C. Gu and P. C. Yeh, “Partial phase-conjugation, fidelity, and reciprocity,” Opt. Commun. 107(5-6), 353–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, “Phase conjugate optics and real-time holography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14(9), 650–660 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. D. Drummond and A. T. Friberg, “Specular reflection cancellation in an interferometer with a phase-conjugate mirror,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(10), 5618–5625 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

E. J. McDowell, M. Cui, I. M. Vellekoop, V. Senekerimyan, and Z. Yaqoob, “Turbidity suppression from the ballistic to the diffusice regime in biological tissues using optical phase conjugation,” J. Biomed. Opt. submitted.
[PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

V. V. Tuchin, “Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38(15), 2497–2518 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

C. Gu and P. C. Yeh, “Partial phase-conjugation, fidelity, and reciprocity,” Opt. Commun. 107(5-6), 353–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Universal optimal transmission of light through disordered materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 120601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. P. M. Gower, Optical phase conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994).

T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical photonics handbook (CRC press, New York, 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top view of the experimental setup of in vivo TSOPC. The light source is a solid state CW laser at 532 nm (Spectral Physics, Excelsior). M = mirrors, WP = half wave plate for 532nm, BS = beam splitter, S1,2,3 = shutters, SH = sample holder, L = lens, CCD = CCD camera, ND = neutral density filter, Crystal = 45° cut LiNbO3 crystal. The dark arrow on top of the crystal shows the c axis of the crystal. The concentric dark ring and dot represent the vertical polarization of the laser beams. The rabbit is held on top of the crystal with a shelf which is not shown. (b) Reconstructed TSOPC images through the ear of the rabbit when it is alive (i, ii) and 30 mins after euthanasia (iii), and through a tissue phantom of comparable scattering property (iv). (c) Histology of the ear of the rabbit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TSOPC signal vs. sample displacement during playback. The data are fitted with a Gaussian function (red line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-f) TSOPC signal decay measured when the rabbit is alive and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 24 hours after the ear is excised. The data are fitted with an exponential function (red line).

Equations (6)

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E 2 ( k x , k y ) = E 1 ( k x , k y ) H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) d k x d k y ,
E 4 ( k x , k y ) = E 3 ( k x , k y ) H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) d k x d k y .
H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) = H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) .
E 4 ( k x , k y ) = R ( k x , k y ) E 1 ( k x , k y ) H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) H ( k x , k y , k x , k y ) d k x d k y d k x d k y .
E 4 ( k x 0 , k y 0 ) = E 1 ( k x 0 , k y 0 y ) Δ k x 0 Δ k y 0 R ( k x , k y ) H ( k x 0 , k y 0 y , k x , k y ) H ( k x 0 , k y 0 , k x , k y ) d k x d k y .
E 4 ( k x 0 , k y 0 ) = E 1 ( k x 0 , k y 0 y ) Δ k x 0 Δ k y 0 R ( k x , k y ) H ( k x 0 , k y 0 y , k x , k y ) H ( k x , k y , k x 0 , k y 0 ) d k x d k y .

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